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## 12/14/12

### Tail Call

In computer science, a tail call is a subroutine call that happens inside another procedure as its final action; it may produce a return value which is then immediately returned by the calling procedure. The call site is then said to be in tail position, i.e. at the end of the calling procedure. If any call that a subroutine performs, such that it might eventually lead to this same subroutine being called again down the call chain, is in tail position, such a subroutine is said to be tail-recursive. This is a special case of recursion.

Tail calls are significant because they can be implemented without adding a new stack frame to the call stack. Most of the frame of the current procedure is not needed any more, and it can be replaced by the frame of the tail call, modified as appropriate (similar to overlay for processes, but for function calls). The program can then jump to the called subroutine. Producing such code instead of a standard call sequence is called tail call elimination, or tail call optimization.

For example, with Tail Call Optimization, following:

call factorial (3)
call fact (3 1)
call fact (2 3)
call fact (1 6)
call fact (0 6)
return 6
return 6
return 6
return 6
return 6

might be optimized into the more efficient variant, in terms of both space and time:

call factorial (3)
call fact (3 1)
return 6
return 6

## 12/12/12

### Cryptographic Hash function.

A cryptographic hash function is a hash function; that is, an algorithm that takes an arbitrary block of data and returns a fixed-size bit string, the (cryptographic) hash value, such that an (accidental or intentional) change to the data will (with very high probability) change the hash value. The data to be encoded are often called the "message," and the hash value is sometimes called the message digest or simply digest.

The ideal cryptographic hash function has four main properties:

it is easy to compute the hash value for any given message
it is infeasible to generate a message that has a given hash
it is infeasible to modify a message without changing the hash
it is infeasible to find two different messages with the same hash

Cryptographic hash functions have many information security applications, notably in digital signatures, message authentication codes (MACs), and other forms of authentication.

They can also be used as ordinary hash functions, to index data in hash tables, for fingerprinting, to detect duplicate data or uniquely identify files, and as checksums to detect accidental data corruption.

Indeed, in information security contexts, cryptographic hash values are sometimes called (digital) fingerprints, checksums, or just hash values, even though all these terms stand for functions with rather different properties and purposes.

## 12/11/12

### Integrating 3D Shapes.

Any 3D Shape can be Integrated (it's volume measured).

Just draw it, then visit each pixel inside it's bound, adding it's value (for example 0 if black, 1 if white) to the result value.

### Network Theory

Network Theory is an area of computer science and network science and part of graph theory.

It has application in many disciplines including statistical physics, particle physics, computer science, biology, economics, operations research, and sociology.

Network theory concerns itself with the study of graphs as a representation of either symmetric relations or, more generally, of asymmetric relations between discrete objects.

Applications of network theory include logistical networks, the World Wide Web, Internet, gene regulatory networks, metabolic networks, social networks, epistemological networks, etc.

## 12/3/12

### Simple Context Free Grammar Parser

Finite State Automaton can parse words into Tokens, using Regular Expression mechanisms. Then it can parse Tokens into productions (treating each token as letter in a word).

Complex instructions (such as brackets or expressions) can also be parsed this way... just find them using regular expressions, then strip them from token chain and continue processing.

Assignment operations can be done by finding operator and operands, then passing them for further processing.

and so on..

Or...

Create instruction graph (graphical representation of grammar), then join them into one larger part. You can use flow net to process them concurrently, thus quicker.

This allows to build data structure (for example Abstract Syntax Tree), which can be used to generate output (for example code in target language).

## 12/2/12

### Properties of Stitie Machine.

Stitie Machine is Computer Program with Mathematical and Artistic properties. (See Shapes & Forms).

It's about solving riddle. Let's look at it like this:

If we arrange computers (or objects, nodes in graph) in computer memory (or in internet) into 3D Space, connect them as in Stitie Machine (See Stitie Machine post for Stitie Cube illustration), then we can solve problem of delivering information into one or more destinations (points in 3D space, or nodes in graph) optimally.

Using Mathematical Apparatus we can check how securely and how quick information flows from point A to point(s) B,C.... in space. We can know how securely and how quick Lotus transmits information (check properties of Lotus Transmission). And we can (Mindfully) Visualize it to see.

What about Art? It's a way to express... we can model Forms that will appear in computer memory (or in the Internet), give them a go (let them work). Then we can (Mindfully) Image them to display (in any form, including Visual Image, Sound, Combination of such, and so on...) to perceive how such forms appear in computer memory.

Imagine Airplane, covered with network of tiny computers. Such distributed machine would not only automatically detect and visualize failures in network (we know which nodes do not respond), but also lend it's computing power to solving important problems as they arise.

Psychologists might also try to decipher what people think about symbols (for example 3D Forms) in computer memory (that can appear on computer screen).

Stitie Machine can also execute code at each (or any) point in such network.

## 11/13/12

Sharing Time (Illusion of concurrency).

Any number of threads(running programs) can be coordinated using Thread Scheduler. It is responsible for communicating with each thread and allowing it to proceed with one step, or for specified quantum of time, or until interrupted, for example by passing a token to it. When the thread is done with it's job, it passes token back. Then scheduler proceeds with next thread in queue (or ring).

True concurrency may be achieved with multiple processors.

But once we have concurrency mechanism, how we coordinate threads?

Tokens (preconditions) might be accumulated by entry mechanism, then when all preconditions are met, thread might be allowed to run. (To appear in Thread Scheduler's queue). Multiple tokens might be joined by boolean operators, to allow for conditionality. (for example: precondition A is met when precondition B is met or when precondition C is met).

Communication must be arranged to avoid (or overcome) problems of concurrency, such as Mutual Exclusion, Dining Philosophers, Readers and Writers, Producers and Consumers.

Passing tokens

Events are useful in this model of synchronization.

## 11/6/12

### Stitie Machine 1.1 'Sunsail'.

Stitie Machine 1.1.35 RC 0-0-5 'Sunsail' implementation is available.

(RC stands for: 'Release Candidate', Alpha means 'feature incomplete', Beta means 'feature complete, to be tested').

it's an experiment with Information Technology.
i've tried to help as many as possible in shortest time guided by insight. that's how it was formed into existence.
it's a technology that can solve certain 'problems' better than others, and at solving other 'problems' is worse.
it's incomplete still, and aimed to truly shine at certain point in future - when processors & memory are cheaper.
it's pointless to develop tech that exploits modern computers because by the time it's complete there are better computers already.﻿

'Stitie Space', 3D Objects Matrix data structure, has certain unique 'convenience methods' that allow for a 'fine manipulation of objects' in 'computer memory', a space to be filled with numbers in itself, perhaps ...

these numbers belong to a usual set of {0,1} that is found in 'Computer Sciences' ...

any 'number' or 'other data' can be represented with proper amount of these numbers ...

Stitie Space's 'convenience methods' include:
- MATEN functionality,
- Prism functionality,
- Finite State Objects,
- Conditionality & Events,
- Mindful Imaging functionality.
- perhaps more ...

for more, see if You wish or need, ... : Agile Transformation of Information State.

perhaps in future this will allow to control clouds of robots of different scales.

it's unfinished high level prototype of 3D Objects Matrix, that allows for fine manipulation of objects in space (in computer memory).

MATEN Form functionality is a certain form invocation in space.

controlled robots will be able to (perhaps) take different geometrical forms in space & 'update' software via upload from matrix.

if robots are so small that not visible to eyes, then it can seem that form materializes in space & transforms space.

such a miracle from machine (Deus Ex Machina).

i'd call it 'Pseudomaterialization'.

i've planned (this can change) to implement election algorithm to choose 'task-givers' to groups of robots, for example in a case of failures.

not only that.

Main Features List:

* Stitie Machines (State, Strategy, Router) forming 3-Dimensional Stitie Space (3D Objects Graph that looks like cube of objects connected properly). Let's note that (State + Strategy) is equivalent of an Object as in Object Oriented Programming. Router is a tool that can be used to move States & Strategies to other coordinates. Executing a strategy after moving at certain coordinates is also possible with Router objects.
* MATEN functionality (Certain Form Invocation in Space).
* PRISM transformation. It will transform space taking set of Coordinates and LightPoints at such as input. 'colorful points of light in space will be split and transform space'.
* LightPoints. Point of Light is (State, Strategy) pair, an equivalent of an Object. (color is determined by state and strategy pair, strategy determines also changes in color; color includes lighting).
* Mindful Imaging Prototype (depends on JOGL).

Sitite Machine version 1.1 'Sunsail' is considered closed, only allowable changes from now on are error-fixing.

Work will continue in Stitie Machine 1.2 'Satellite' & perhaps in Stitie Machine 1.3 'November Rain'.

----

Notes for MATEN functionality:

It's a Maneuver in Space. We'll add Maneuvers to Space and name them. Then invoke MATEN function with a Maneuver's name as a parameter, which will return Space to 'zero' state then invoke that Maneuver. Or will do magic that will result in something equal but more efficient. Result of executing a Maneuver is a new Form.

Example code, for preparing for a MATEN invocation:

----

MATENManeuverStrategy mms1 = new MATENManeuverStrategy(
new EmptyManeuverStrategy(),
new DefaultZeroManeuverStrategy(matrixA));

Code above adds an 'empty form invocation maneuver' to a Space (which is a '3D Matrix' in this case).

This 'empty form' on Matrix A can be invoked like that:

matrixA.MATEN("emptyForm");

When invoked, default zero maneuver strategy will be called if space is not in the 'zero state'. If called, it will return space to the 'zero state'. Then empty maneuver strategy will be used, which will do nothing. In the end we'll have an empty form, space is in the 'zero state'.

----

Basic (without graph or other magic involved) functionality implemented.

Current implementation of MATEN functionality is not erroneous, we do not want to store last MATEN maneuver... we wish to allow for changes after executing such. Return maneuver must be abstract enough to allow for all situations that are considered. There will be default most abstract return maneuver implementation but we wish to allow for better solutions as well. In certain situations we won't want to just empty all states and strategies, we wish to store them for transformation as input data for later, Invocation maneuver. It's best done with new programming language: 'Ola AH', for concurrency is an issue for now.

For now we have 'Default Zero Maneuver Strategy' that returns space to the 'Zero State', where strategies and states are empty, without remembering strategies/states from previous Form.

There might be concurrency errors if MATEN is used carelessly (this can be solved with new language: 'Ola AH', or theoretically with hacks - we do not want such). Hack is something done not according with design.

----

Some more tests:

Test #1: Stitie Space.

Quite slow for low resolution. (in truth, not so low because it's three-dimensional - but it's still slow).

after > 64 'pixels' resolution there are troubles, perhaps not enough memory - i didn't check very well.

optimization can proceed as follows:

- perhaps parts of Stitie Space can be optimized algorithmically. thinking about Strategies, Maneuvers, etc... not guaranteeing anything. still fairly cheap programmer time-wise.
- we can have low level optimization (both for Stitie Space & Code of Program that uses Stitie Space). very expensive programmer time-wise.

Test #2: JOGL/JogAmp.

seems that JOGL is quite fast & light, it should stay if it's not too expensive (seems to be free for now). we do not need any layer above.

perhaps 'Ola AH' Programming Language can use OpenGL as well, we'll see. certainly not as only option, there should be also option for direct graphics coding.

----

Dependencies used:

should work with Linux as well; i've used Stitie Space 'Sunsail' 1.1 with Linux / JogAmp before.

i didn't care (yet) about using minimal library set, it's not time for that.... perhaps files content will change with time anyway.

branch of Stitie Machine 1.1 'Sunsail' became basis for a Game Engine, which will be ported to ANSI C for speed (low-level optimization).

it looks like a Stitie Machine 1.1 'Sunsail' will be included in semantics of 'Ola AH' Programming Language.

See also if You wish or need, ... : Stitie Machine (Maszyna Stanikowa Wysockiego), High-Level Prototype, Low-Level Port, Parallel & Distributed Systems, Stitie Space, Stitie Space, Form & Emptiness.

## 11/5/12

### Joining and Transforming Properties

When Joining or Transforming properties, we should use 3 methods:

Collection joinPropertiesAllowingSplit(Object property1, Object property2, ...)
Object joinPropertiesByTransforming(Object property1, Object property2, ...)
Object transformProperty(Object property)

First method allows, as it's name says, allows to separate properties after they have been joined.

Second method allows to join multiple properties forming new object with properties derived from input properties.

Thrid method allows to transform single property into another property.

### Distributed Transmission

Any number (note that any object's state can be represented as number) can be written as series, sum of prime number multiplications (See Factor Prime post). Serie can be transformed (compressed, reduced), then each of prime numbers and operations can be numbered, quantified, and sent via different channels (routes), then joined at the destination.

This way large number (or object) can arrive at destination more securely and quicker. In case of channel (for example internet connection between two computers) being sniffed (overheard by hacker), the sniffer does not have complete information. It is quicker because data is compressed, and each part trasmitted concurrently via separate channel.

Code can also be transmitted, just like any other information, executable or not. (We can generate intermediate code or use available notation, for example java .class files, transmit, then parse it at destination. We can use reflection to generate objects dynamically).

Implementation of Distributed Transmission will be available in this blog later on.

## 11/3/12

### Taylor Series

In mathematics, a Taylor series is a representation of a function as an infinite sum of terms that are calculated from the values of the function's derivatives at a single point.

The Taylor series of a real or complex-valued function ƒ(x) that is infinitely differentiable in a neighborhood of a real or complex number a is the power series:

f(a)+(f '(a) / 1!)*(x-a) + (f ''(a) / 2!)*(x-a)2 + (f(3)(a) / 3!)*(x-a)3 + ...

It is common practice to approximate a function by using a finite number of terms of its Taylor series. Taylor's theorem gives quantitative estimates on the error in this approximation. Any finite number of initial terms of the Taylor series of a function is called a Taylor polynomial. The Taylor series of a function is the limit of that function's Taylor polynomials, provided that the limit exists. A function may not be equal to its Taylor series, even if its Taylor series converges at every point.

As the degree of the Taylor polynomial rises, it approaches the correct function.

## 11/1/12

### How to precisely count using computers.

You can write number in form of fractions of numbers factored into primes.

Then define operations on fractions (for example mutliplication of two fractions is done via multiplications: numerator by numerator and denominator by denominator).

This way we can write precisely large numbers in form of fractions, and if we need to reduce fraction into number we can do it with least number of error-prone operations.

## 10/31/12

### Maclaurin Series

Maclaurin series is infinite power series of n-th term equal to:

an = (f(n)(0))*xn/n!

where f(n)(0) is value of n-th derivative of certain function f(x) for x = 0.

A Maclaurin series is a Taylor series expansion of a function about 0.

It can be proven, that if function f(x) is differentiable infinite amount of times in certain neighbourhood of x = 0 and limit of Rn at infinity equals 0 and:

Rn = (f(n)(c))*xn/n!

where c is between 0 and x, then:

f(x) = f(0) + a1 + a2 + ...

### Filters

Filter is a device or process that removes from a signal some unwanted component or feature.

Filtering is a class of signal processing, the defining feature of filters being the complete or partial suppression of some aspect of the signal. Most often, this means removing some frequencies and not others in order to suppress interfering signals and reduce background noise. However, filters do not exclusively act in the frequency domain; especially in the field of image processing many other targets for filtering exist.

## 10/27/12

### Remote Hacking Attack

Hackers are often seen as computer burglars. Hackers can gain access to computer using exploit program, either local or remote. Remote exploits allow hacker to gain access to server without having local account.

Vulnerable services can be detected using nmap tool (port scanning - to see open ports and services running on them), telnet (to talk with service and learn about it).

Once we get past firewall, we can attack application via open port. Succesful attack might result in privileges escalation for example.

That is, after using nmap, once we know service name and version we can look in internet for it's vulnerabilities, for example on Bug Traq mailing list (available under address: http://www.securityfocus.com/archive/1).

Computer system is penetrated and we have root privileges.

What next?

Probably install something on computer, hide processess in kernel, perhaps hack firewall module in the kernel to allow for transmission via ports that open as desired (for example in reaction for specially prepared packet sequence), anything else.

User does not know he's hacked.

See also: Hiding processes, files and folders in Linux using kernel module (for kernel version 2.4), How to implement Firewall, Shellcode, Assembler & Machine Code, Buffer Overflow Attack, Heap Overflow type Attacks.

## 10/22/12

### Flow Nets

Directed Graph can be interpreted as Flow Net and used to find answers to questions regarding movement of "something" in such net. Let's imagine material circulating in given system from source, where it is produced, to outflow, where it's used. Source creates material with constant speed, and with same speed it is used in outflow. Intuitively, in each point (node) of this system, "flow" equals speed, with which material moves through this point. Flow nets may be used to model flow of fluid in pipelines, manufactured parts, electricity in circuits, information in communication networks and so on.

Each directed edge in net may be interpreted as channel, through which something flows. Each channel has given throughput, that determines maximum speed with which flow occurs in this channel (for example: 1000 liters of fluid per hour in pipeline). Nodes different from source and outflow are points, where channels converge. Flow occurs only through these nodes, and is not stopped in them. Speed of arriving in node must be same as speed of leaving it. This property is called "flow preservation".

## 10/18/12

### Differential of a function

In calculus, the differential represents the principal part of the change in a function y = ƒ(x) with respect to changes in the independent variable. The differential dy is defined by:

dy=f '(x)*dx

where f'(x) is the derivative of ƒ with respect to x, and dx is an additional real variable (so that dy is a function of x and dx). The notation is such that the equation:

dy=(dy/dx)*dx

holds, where the derivative is represented in the Leibniz notation dy/dx, and this is consistent with regarding the derivative as the quotient of the differentials. One also writes:

df(x)=f '(x)*dx

The precise meaning of the variables dy and dx depends on the context of the application and the required level of mathematical rigor.

## 10/17/12

### Linux Firewall Configuration (iptables)

IPTABLES

iptables - administration tool for IPv4 packet filtering and NAT

SYNOPSIS
iptables [-t table] {-A|-D} chain rule-specification [options...]
iptables [-t table] -I [rulenum] rule-specification [options...]
iptables [-t table] -R rulenum rule-specification [options...]
iptables [-t table] -D chain rulenum [options...]
iptables [-t table] -S [chain]
iptables [-t table] {-F|-L|-Z} [chain] [options...]
iptables [-t table] -N chain
iptables [-t table] -X [chain]
iptables [-t table] -P chain target [options...]
iptables [-t table] -E old-chain-name new-chain-name

DESCRIPTION

Iptables is used to set up, maintain, and inspect the tables of IPv4 packet filter rules in the Linux kernel. Several different tables may be defined. Each table contains a number of built-in chains and may also contain user-defined chains.

Each chain is a list of rules which can match a set of packets. Each rule specifies what to do with a packet that matches. This is called a `target', which may be a jump to a user-defined chain in the same table.

TARGETS
A firewall rule specifies criteria for a packet and a target. If the packet does not match, the next rule in the chain is the examined; if it does match, then the next rule is specified by the value of the target, which can be the name of a user-defined chain or one of the special values ACCEPT, DROP, QUEUE or RETURN.

ACCEPT means to let the packet through. DROP means to drop the packet on the floor. QUEUE means to pass the packet to userspace. (How the packet can be received by a userspace process differs by the particular queue handler. 2.4.x and 2.6.x kernels up to 2.6.13 include the ip_queue queue handler. Kernels 2.6.14 and later additionally include the nfnetlink_queue queue handler. Packets with a target of QUEUE will be sent to queue number '0' in this case. Please also see the NFQUEUE target as described later in this man page.) RETURN means stop traversing this chain and resume at the next rule in the previous (calling) chain. If the end of a built-in chain is reached or a rule in a built-in chain with target RETURN is matched, the target specified by the chain policy determines the fate of the packet.

TABLES
There are currently three independent tables (which tables are present at any time depends on the kernel configuration options and which modules are present).

-t, --table table
This option specifies the packet matching table which the command should operate on. If the kernel is configured with automatic module loading, an attempt will be made to load the appropriate module for that table if it is not already there.

The tables are as follows:

filter:

This is the default table (if no -t option is passed). It contains the built-in chains INPUT (for packets destined to local sockets), FORWARD (for packets being routed through the box), and OUTPUT (for locally-generated packets).

nat:

This table is consulted when a packet that creates a new connection is encountered. It consists of three built-ins: PREROUTING (for altering packets as soon as they come in), OUTPUT (for altering locally-generated packets before routing), and POSTROUTING (for altering packets as they are about to go out).

mangle:

This table is used for specialized packet alteration. Until kernel 2.4.17 it had two built-in chains: PREROUTING (for altering incoming packets before routing) and OUTPUT (for altering locally-generated packets before routing). Since kernel 2.4.18, three other built-in chains are also supported: INPUT (for packets coming into the box itself), FORWARD (for altering packets being routed through the box), and POSTROUTING (for altering packets as they are about to go out).

raw:

This table is used mainly for configuring exemptions from connection tracking in combination with the NOTRACK target. It registers at the netfilter hooks with higher priority and is thus called before ip_conntrack, or any other IP tables. It provides the following built-in chains: PREROUTING (for packets arriving via any network interface) OUTPUT (for packets generated by local processes)

OPTIONS
The options that are recognized by iptables can be divided into several different groups.

COMMANDS
These options specify the desired action to perform. Only one of them can be specified on the command line unless otherwise stated below. For long versions of the command and option names, you need to use only enough letters to ensure that iptables can differentiate it from all other options.

-A, --append chain rule-specification

Append one or more rules to the end of the selected chain. When the source and/or destination names resolve to more than one address, a rule will be added for each possible address combination.

-D, --delete chain rule-specification

-D, --delete chain rulenum

Delete one or more rules from the selected chain. There are two versions of this command: the rule can be specified as a number in the chain (starting at 1 for the first rule) or a rule to match.

-I, --insert chain [rulenum] rule-specification

Insert one or more rules in the selected chain as the given rule number. So, if the rule number is 1, the rule or rules are inserted at the head of the chain. This is also the default if no rule number is specified.

-R, --replace chain rulenum rule-specification

Replace a rule in the selected chain. If the source and/or destination names resolve to multiple addresses, the command will fail. Rules are numbered starting at 1.

-L, --list [chain]

List all rules in the selected chain. If no chain is selected, all chains are listed. Like every other iptables command, it applies to the specified table (filter is the default), so NAT rules get listed by

iptables -t nat -n -L

Please note that it is often used with the -n option, in order to avoid long reverse DNS lookups. It is legal to specify the -Z (zero) option as well, in which case the chain(s) will be atomically listed and zeroed. The exact output is affected by the other arguments given. The exact rules are suppressed until you use

iptables -L -v

-S, --list-rules [chain]

Print all rules in the selected chain. If no chain is selected, all chains are printed like iptables-save. Like every other iptables command, it applies to the specified table (filter is the default).

-F, --flush [chain]

Flush the selected chain (all the chains in the table if none is given). This is equivalent to deleting all the rules one by one.

-Z, --zero [chain]

Zero the packet and byte counters in all chains. It is legal to specify the -L, --list (list) option as well, to see the counters immediately before they are cleared. (See above.)

-N, --new-chain chain

Create a new user-defined chain by the given name. There must be no target of that name already.

-X, --delete-chain [chain]

Delete the optional user-defined chain specified. There must be no references to the chain. If there are, you must delete or replace the referring rules before the chain can be deleted. The chain must be empty, i.e. not contain any rules. If no argument is given, it will attempt to delete every non-builtin chain in the table.

-P, --policy chain target

Set the policy for the chain to the given target. See the section TARGETS for the legal targets. Only built-in (non-user-defined) chains can have policies, and neither built-in nor user-defined chains can be policy targets.

-E, --rename-chain old-chain new-chain

Rename the user specified chain to the user supplied name. This is cosmetic, and has no effect on the structure of the table.

-h

Help. Give a (currently very brief) description of the command syntax.

PARAMETERS
The following parameters make up a rule specification (as used in the add, delete, insert, replace and append commands).

[!] -p, --protocol protocol

The protocol of the rule or of the packet to check. The specified protocol can be one of tcp, udp, udplite, icmp, esp, ah, sctp or all, or it can be a numeric value, representing one of these protocols or a different one. A protocol name from /etc/protocols is also allowed. A "!" argument before the protocol inverts the test. The number zero is equivalent to all. Protocol all will match with all protocols and is taken as default when this option is omitted.

Destination specification. See the description of the -s (source) flag for a detailed description of the syntax. The flag --dst is an alias for this option.

-j, --jump target

This specifies the target of the rule; i.e., what to do if the packet matches it. The target can be a user-defined chain (other than the one this rule is in), one of the special builtin targets which decide the fate of the packet immediately, or an extension (see EXTENSIONS below). If this option is omitted in a rule (and -g is not used), then matching the rule will have no effect on the packet's fate, but the counters on the rule will be incremented.

-g, --goto chain

This specifies that the processing should continue in a user specified chain. Unlike the --jump option return will not continue processing in this chain but instead in the chain that called us via --jump.

[!] -i, --in-interface name

Name of an interface via which a packet was received (only for packets entering the INPUT, FORWARD and PREROUTING chains). When the "!" argument is used before the interface name, the sense is inverted. If the interface name ends in a "+", then any interface which begins with this name will match. If this option is omitted, any interface name will match.

[!] -o, --out-interface name

Name of an interface via which a packet is going to be sent (for packets entering the FORWARD, OUTPUT and POSTROUTING chains). When the "!" argument is used before the interface name, the sense is inverted. If the interface name ends in a "+", then any interface which begins with this name will match. If this option is omitted, any interface name will match.

[!] -f, --fragment

This means that the rule only refers to second and further fragments of fragmented packets. Since there is no way to tell the source or destination ports of such a packet (or ICMP type), such a packet will not match any rules which specify them. When the "!" argument precedes the "-f" flag, the rule will only match head fragments, or unfragmented packets.

-c, --set-counters packets bytes

This enables the administrator to initialize the packet and byte counters of a rule (during INSERT, APPEND, REPLACE operations).

OTHER OPTIONS
The following additional options can be specified:

-v, --verbose

Verbose output. This option makes the list command show the interface name, the rule options (if any), and the TOS masks. The packet and byte counters are also listed, with the suffix 'K', 'M' or 'G' for 1000, 1,000,000 and 1,000,000,000 multipliers respectively (but see the -x flag to change this). For appending, insertion, deletion and replacement, this causes detailed information on the rule or rules to be printed.

-n, --numeric

Numeric output. IP addresses and port numbers will be printed in numeric format. By default, the program will try to display them as host names, network names, or services (whenever applicable).

-x, --exact

Expand numbers. Display the exact value of the packet and byte counters, instead of only the rounded number in K's (multiples of 1000) M's (multiples of 1000K) or G's (multiples of 1000M). This option is only relevant for the -L command.

--line-numbers

When listing rules, add line numbers to the beginning of each rule, corresponding to that rule's position in the chain.

--modprobe=command

When adding or inserting rules into a chain, use command to load any necessary modules (targets, match extensions, etc).

MATCH EXTENSIONS

iptables can use extended packet matching modules. These are loaded in two ways: implicitly, when -p or --protocol is specified, or with the -m or --match options, followed by the matching module name; after these, various extra command line options become available, depending on the specific module. You can specify multiple extended match modules in one line, and you can use the -h or --help options after the module has been specified to receive help specific to that module.

The following are included in the base package, and most of these can be preceded by a "!" to invert the sense of the match.

This module matches packets based on their address type. Address types are used within the kernel networking stack and categorize addresses into various groups. The exact definition of that group depends on the specific layer three protocol.

The following address types are possible:

UNSPEC

UNICAST

LOCAL

ANYCAST

an anycast packet

MULTICAST

BLACKHOLE

UNREACHABLE

PROHIBIT

THROW

FIXME

NAT

FIXME

XRESOLVE

[!] --src-type type

Matches if the source address is of given type

[!] --dst-type type

Matches if the destination address is of given type

--limit-iface-in

The address type checking can be limited to the interface the packet is coming in. This option is only valid in the PREROUTING, INPUT and FORWARD chains. It cannot be specified with the --limit-iface-out option.

--limit-iface-out

The address type checiking can be limited to the interface the packet is going out. This option is only valid in the POSTROUTING, OUTPUT and FORWARD chains. It cannot be specified with the --limit-iface-in option.

ah

This module matches the SPIs in Authentication header of IPsec packets.

[!] --ahspi spi[:spi] comment

--comment comment

Example:

iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.0.0/16 -m comment --comment "A privatized IP block"

connbytes

Match by how many bytes or packets a connection (or one of the two flows constituting the connection) has transferred so far, or by average bytes per packet.

The counters are 64bit and are thus not expected to overflow ;)

The primary use is to detect long-lived downloads and mark them to be scheduled using a lower priority band in traffic control.

The transferred bytes per connection can also be viewed through /proc/net/ip_conntrack and accessed via ctnetlink

[!] --connbytes from[:to]

match packets from a connection whose packets/bytes/average packet size is more than FROM and less than TO bytes/packets. if TO is omitted only FROM check is done. "!" is used to match packets not falling in the range.

which packets to consider

--connbytes-mode {packets|bytes|avgpkt}

whether to check the amount of packets, number of bytes transferred or the average size (in bytes) of all packets received so far. Note that when "both" is used together with "avgpkt", and data is going (mainly) only in one direction (for example HTTP), the average packet size will be about half of the actual data packets.

Example:

iptables .. -m connbytes --connbytes 10000:100000 --connbytes-dir both

--connbytes-mode bytes ...

connlimit

Allows you to restrict the number of parallel connections to a server per client IP address (or client address block).

[!] --connlimit-above n

Match if the number of existing connections is (not) above n.

Group hosts using the prefix length. For IPv4, this must be a number between (including) 0 and 32. For IPv6, between 0 and 128.

Examples:

# allow 2 telnet connections per client host

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --syn --dport 23 -m connlimit --connlimit-above 2 -j REJECT

# you can also match the other way around:

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --syn --dport 23 -m connlimit ! --connlimit-above 2 -j

ACCEPT

# limit the number of parallel HTTP requests to 16 per class C sized network (24 bit netmask)

iptables -p tcp --syn --dport 80 -m connlimit --connlimit-above 16 --connlimit-mask 24 -j REJECT

# limit the number of parallel HTTP requests to 16 for the link local network (ipv6)

ip6tables -p tcp --syn --dport 80 -s fe80::/64 -m connlimit --connlimit-above 16

connmark

This module matches the netfilter mark field associated with a connection (which can be set using the CONNMARK target below).

Matches packets in connections with the given mark value (if a mask is specified, this is logically ANDed with the mark before the comparison). (Old option name --mark is still supported.)

conntrack
This module, when combined with connection tracking, allows access to the connection tracking state for this packet/connection.

[!] --ctstate statelist

statelist is a comma separated list of the connection states to match. Possible states are listed below.

[!] --ctproto l4proto

Layer-4 protocol to match (by number or name)

[!] --ctorigsrcport port
[!] --ctorigdstport port
[!] --ctreplsrcport port
[!] --ctrepldstport port
Match against original/reply source/destination port (TCP/UDP/etc.) or GRE key.

[!] --ctstatus statelist

statuslist is a comma separated list of the connection statuses to match. Possible statuses are listed below.

[!] --ctexpire time[:time]

Match remaining lifetime in seconds against given value or range of values (inclusive)

Match packets that are flowing in the specified direction. If this flag is not specified at all, matches packets in both directions.

States for --ctstate:

INVALID

meaning that the packet is associated with no known connection

NEW

meaning that the packet has started a new connection, or otherwise associated with a connection which has not seen packets in both directions, and

ESTABLISHED

meaning that the packet is associated with a connection which has seen packets in both directions,

RELATED

meaning that the packet is starting a new connection, but is associated with an existing connection, such as an FTP data transfer, or an ICMP error.

SNAT

A virtual state, matching if the original source address differs from the reply destination.

DNAT

A virtual state, matching if the original destination differs from the reply source.

Statuses for --ctstatus:

NONE

None of the below.

EXPECTED

This is an expected connection (i.e. a conntrack helper set it up)

Conntrack has seen packets in both directions.

ASSURED

Conntrack entry should never be early-expired.

CONFIRMED

Connection is confirmed: originating packet has left box.

dscp

This module matches the 6 bit DSCP field within the TOS field in the IP header. DSCP has superseded TOS within the IETF.

[!] --dscp value

Match against a numeric (decimal or hex) value [0-63].

[!] --dscp-class class

Match the DiffServ class. This value may be any of the BE, EF, AFxx or CSx classes. It will then be converted into its according numeric value.

ecn

This allows you to match the ECN bits of the IPv4 and TCP header. ECN is the Explicit Congestion Notification mechanism as specified in RFC3168

[!] --ecn-tcp-cwr

This matches if the TCP ECN CWR (Congestion Window Received) bit is set.

[!] --ecn-tcp-ece

This matches if the TCP ECN ECE (ECN Echo) bit is set.

[!] --ecn-ip-ect num

This matches a particular IPv4 ECT (ECN-Capable Transport). You have to specify a number between `0' and `3'.

esp

This module matches the SPIs in ESP header of IPsec packets.

[!] --espspi spi[:spi]

hashlimit

hashlimit uses hash buckets to express a rate limiting match (like the limit match) for a group of connections using a single iptables rule. Grouping can be done per-hostgroup (source and/or destination address) and/or per-port. It gives you the ability to express "N packets per time quantum per group":

matching on source host

"1000 packets per second for every host in 192.168.0.0/16"

matching on source prot

"100 packets per second for every service of 192.168.1.1"

matching on subnet

"10000 packets per minute for every /28 subnet in 10.0.0.0/8"

A hash limit option (--hashlimit-upto, --hashlimit-above) and --hashlimit-name are required.

--hashlimit-upto amount[/second|/minute|/hour|/day]

Match if the rate is below or equal to amount/quantum. It is specified as a number, with an optional time quantum suffix; the default is 3/hour.

--hashlimit-above amount[/second|/minute|/hour|/day]

Match if the rate is above amount/quantum.

--hashlimit-burst amount

Maximum initial number of packets to match: this number gets recharged by one every time the limit specified above is not reached, up to this number; the default is 5.

--hashlimit-mode {srcip|srcport|dstip|dstport},...

A comma-separated list of objects to take into consideration. If no --hashlimit-mode option is given, hashlimit acts like limit, but at the expensive of doing the hash housekeeping.

When --hashlimit-mode srcip is used, all source addresses encountered will be grouped according to the given prefix length and the so-created subnet will be subject to hashlimit. prefix must be between (inclusive) 0 and 32. Note that

--hashlimit-srcmask 0 is basically doing the same thing as not specifying srcip for
--hashlimit-mode, but is technically more expensive.

--hashlimit-name foo

The name for the /proc/net/ipt_hashlimit/foo entry.

--hashlimit-htable-size buckets

The number of buckets of the hash table

--hashlimit-htable-max entries

Maximum entries in the hash.

--hashlimit-htable-expire msec

After how many milliseconds do hash entries expire.

--hashlimit-htable-gcinterval msec

How many milliseconds between garbage collection intervals.

helper

This module matches packets related to a specific conntrack-helper.

[!] --helper string

Matches packets related to the specified conntrack-helper.

string can be "ftp" for packets related to a ftp-session on default port. For other ports append -portnr to the value, ie. "ftp-2121".

Same rules apply for other conntrack-helpers.

icmp
This extension can be used if `--protocol icmp' is specified. It provides the following option:

[!] --icmp-type typename

This allows specification of the ICMP type, which can be a numeric ICMP type, or one of the ICMP type names shown by the command

iptables -p icmp -h

iprange
This matches on a given arbitrary range of IP addresses.

[!] --src-range from[-to]

Match source IP in the specified range.

[!] --dst-range from[-to]

Match destination IP in the specified range.

length

This module matches the length of the layer-3 payload (e.g. layer-4 packet) f a packet against a specific value or range of values.

[!] --length length[:length]

limit

This module matches at a limited rate using a token bucket filter. A rule using this extension will match until this limit is reached (unless the `!' flag is used). It can be used in combination with the LOG target to give limited logging, for example.

[!] --limit rate[/second|/minute|/hour|/day]

Maximum average matching rate: specified as a number, with an optional `/second', `/minute', `/hour', or `/day' suffix; the default is 3/hour.

--limit-burst number

Maximum initial number of packets to match: this number gets recharged by one every time the limit specified above is not reached, up to this number; the default is 5.

mac

Match source MAC address. It must be of the form XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX. Note that this only makes sense for packets coming from an Ethernet device and entering the PREROUTING, FORWARD or INPUT chains.

mark

This module matches the netfilter mark field associated with a packet (which can be set using the MARK target below).

Matches packets with the given unsigned mark value (if a mask is specified, this is logically ANDed with the mask before the comparison).

multiport

This module matches a set of source or destination ports. Up to 15 ports can be specified. A port range (port:port) counts as two ports. It can only be used in conjunction with -p tcp or -p udp.

[!] --source-ports,--sport port[,port|,port:port]...

Match if the source port is one of the given ports. The flag --sports is a convenient alias for this option. Multiple ports or port ranges are separated using a comma, and a port range is specified using a colon. 53,1024:65535 would therefore match ports 53 and all from 1024 through 65535.

[!] --destination-ports,--dport port[,port|,port:port]...

Match if the destination port is one of the given ports. The flag --dports is a convenient alias for this option.

[!] --ports port[,port|,port:port]...

Match if either the source or destination ports are equal to one of the given ports.

owner

This module attempts to match various characteristics of the packet creator, for locally generated packets. This match is only valid in the OUTPUT and POSTROUTING chains. Forwarded packets do not have any socket associated with them. Packets from kernel threads do have a socket, but usually no owner.

[!] --uid-owner userid[-userid]

Matches if the packet socket's file structure (if it has one) is owned by the given user. You may also specify a numerical UID, or an UID range.

[!] --gid-owner groupname
[!] --gid-owner groupid[-groupid]

Matches if the packet socket's file structure is owned by the given group. You may also specify a numerical GID, or a GID range.

[!] --socket-exists

Matches if the packet is associated with a socket.

physdev

This module matches on the bridge port input and output devices enslaved to a bridge device. This module is a part of the infrastructure that enables a transparent bridging IP firewall and is only useful for kernel versions above version 2.5.44.

[!] --physdev-in name

Name of a bridge port via which a packet is received (only for packets entering the INPUT, FORWARD and PREROUTING chains). If the interface name ends in a "+", then any interface which begins with this name will match. If the packet didn't arrive through a bridge device, this packet won't match this option, unless '!' is used.

[!] --physdev-out name

Name of a bridge port via which a packet is going to be sent (for packets entering the FORWARD, OUTPUT and POSTROUTING chains). If the interface name ends in a "+", then any interface which begins with this name will match. Note that in the nat and mangle OUTPUT chains one cannot match on the bridge output port, however one can in the filter OUTPUT chain. If the packet won't leave by a bridge device or it is yet unknown what the output device will be, then the packet won't match this option, unless

[!] --physdev-is-in

Matches if the packet has entered through a bridge interface.

[!] --physdev-is-out

Matches if the packet will leave through a bridge interface.

[!] --physdev-is-bridged

Matches if the packet is being bridged and therefore is not being routed. This is only useful in the FORWARD and POSTROUTING chains.

pkttype

This module matches the link-layer packet type.

policy
This modules matches the policy used by IPsec for handling a packet.

--dir {in|out}

Used to select whether to match the policy used for decapsulation or the policy that will be used for encapsulation. in is valid in the PREROUTING, INPUT and FORWARD chains, out is valid in the POSTROUTING, OUTPUT and FORWARD chains.

--pol {none|ipsec}

Matches if the packet is subject to IPsec processing.

--strict

Selects whether to match the exact policy or match if any rule of the policy matches the given policy.

[!] --reqid id

Matches the reqid of the policy rule. The reqid can be specified with setkey(8) using unique:id as level.

[!] --spi spi

Matches the SPI of the SA.

[!] --proto {ah|esp|ipcomp}

Matches the encapsulation protocol.

[!] --mode {tunnel|transport}

Matches the encapsulation mode.

Matches the source end-point address of a tunnel mode SA. Only valid with --mode tunnel.

Matches the destination end-point address of a tunnel mode SA. Only valid with

--mode tunnel.

--next

Start the next element in the policy specification. Can only be used with --strict.

quota
Implements network quotas by decrementing a byte counter with each packet.

--quota bytes

The quota in bytes.

rateest

The rate estimator can match on estimated rates as collected by the RATEEST target. It supports matching on absolute bps/pps values, comparing two rate estimators and matching on the difference between two rate estimators.

--rateest1 name

Name of the first rate estimator.

--rateest2 name

Name of the second rate estimator (if difference is to be calculated).

--rateest-delta

Compare difference(s) to given rate(s)

--rateest1-bps value
--rateest2-bps value

Compare bytes per second.

--rateest1-pps value
--rateest2-pps value

Compare packets per second.

[!] --rateest-lt

Match if rate is less than given rate/estimator.

[!] --rateest-gt

Match if rate is greater than given rate/estimator.

[!] --rateest-eq

Match if rate is equal to given rate/estimator.

Example: This is what can be used to route outgoing data connections from an FTP server over two lines based on the available bandwidth at the time the data connection was started:

# Estimate outgoing rates

iptables -t mangle -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j RATEEST --rateest-name eth0 --rateest-interval 250ms --rateest-ewma 0.5s

iptables -t mangle -A POSTROUTING -o ppp0 -j RATEEST --rateest-name ppp0 --rateest-interval 250ms --rateest-ewma 0.5s

# Mark based on available bandwidth

iptables -t mangle -A balance -m conntrack --ctstate NEW -m helper --helper ftp -m rateest --rateest-delta --rateest1 eth0 --rateest-bps1 2.5mbit --rateest-gt

--rateest2 ppp0 --rateest-bps2 2mbit -j CONNMARK --set-mark 1

iptables -t mangle -A balance -m conntrack --ctstate NEW -m helper --helper ftp -m rateest --rateest-delta --rateest1 ppp0 --rateest-bps1 2mbit --rateest-gt --rateest2 eth0 --rateest-bps2 2.5mbit -j CONNMARK --set-mark 2

iptables -t mangle -A balance -j CONNMARK --restore-mark

realm

This matches the routing realm. Routing realms are used in complex routing setups involving dynamic routing protocols like BGP.

Matches a given realm number (and optionally mask). If not a number, value can be a named realm from /etc/iproute2/rt_realms (mask can not be used in that case).

recent
Allows you to dynamically create a list of IP addresses and then match against that list in a few different ways.

For example, you can create a `badguy' list out of people attempting to connect to port 139 on your firewall and then DROP all future packets from them without considering them.

--name name

Specify the list to use for the commands. If no name is given then 'DEFAULT' will be used.

[!] --set

This will add the source address of the packet to the list. If the source address is already in the list, this will update the existing entry. This will always return success (or failure if `!' is passed in).

--rsource

Match/save the source address of each packet in the recent list table. This is the default.

--rdest

Match/save the destination address of each packet in the recent list table.

[!] --rcheck

Check if the source address of the packet is currently in the list.

[!] --update

Like --rcheck, except it will update the "last seen" timestamp if it matches.

[!] --remove

Check if the source address of the packet is currently in the list and if so that address will be removed from the list and the rule will return true. If the address is not found, false is returned.

[!] --seconds seconds

This option must be used in conjunction with one of --rcheck or --update. When used, this will narrow the match to only happen when the address is in the list and was seen within the last given number of seconds.

[!] --hitcount hits

This option must be used in conjunction with one of --rcheck or --update. When used, this will narrow the match to only happen when the address is in the list and packets had been received greater than or equal to the given value. This option may be used along with --seconds to create an even narrower match requiring a certain number of hits within a specific time frame.

--rttl

This option must be used in conjunction with one of --rcheck or --update. When used, this will narrow the match to only happen when the address is in the list and the TTL of the current packet matches that of the packet which hit the --set rule. This may be useful if you have problems with people faking their source address in order to DoS you via this module by disallowing others access to your site by sending bogus packets to you.

Examples:

# iptables -A FORWARD -m recent --name badguy --rcheck --seconds 60 -j DROP

# iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -i eth0 --dport 139 -m recent --name badguy --set -j

DROP

Official website (http://snowman.net/projects/ipt_recent/) also has some examples of usage.

/proc/net/ipt_recent/* are the current lists of addresses and information about each entry of each list.

Each file in /proc/net/ipt_recent/ can be read from to see the current list or written two using the following commands to modify the list:

echo xx.xx.xx.xx > /proc/net/ipt_recent/DEFAULT

to Add to the DEFAULT list

echo -xx.xx.xx.xx > /proc/net/ipt_recent/DEFAULT
to Remove from the DEFAULT list

echo clear > /proc/net/ipt_recent/DEFAULT
to empty the DEFAULT list.

The module itself accepts parameters, defaults shown:

ip_list_tot=100
Number of addresses remembered per table

ip_pkt_list_tot=20
Number of packets per address remembered

ip_list_hash_size=0
Hash table size. 0 means to calculate it based on ip_list_tot, default: 512

ip_list_perms=0644
Permissions for /proc/net/ipt_recent/* files
debug=0

Set to 1 to get lots of debugging info

sctp

[!] --source-port,--sport port[:port]
[!] --destination-port,--dport port[:port]
[!] --chunk-types {all|any|only} chunktype[:flags] [...]

The flag letter in upper case indicates that the flag is to match if set, in the lower case indicates to match if unset.

Chunk types: DATA INIT INIT_ACK SACK HEARTBEAT HEARTBEAT_ACK ABORT SHUTDOWN SHUTDOWN_ACK ERROR COOKIE_ECHO COOKIE_ACK ECN_ECNE ECN_CWR SHUTDOWN_COMPLETE ASCONF ASCONF_ACK

chunk type available flags
DATA U B E u b e
ABORT T t
SHUTDOWN_COMPLETE T t

(lowercase means flag should be "off", uppercase means "on")

Examples:

iptables -A INPUT -p sctp --dport 80 -j DROP

iptables -A INPUT -p sctp --chunk-types any DATA,INIT -j DROP

iptables -A INPUT -p sctp --chunk-types any DATA:Be -j ACCEPT

set

This modules macthes IP sets which can be defined by ipset(8).

[!] --match-set setname flag[,flag]...

where flags are src and/or dst and there can be no more than six of them. Hence the command

iptables -A FORWARD -m set --set test src,dst

will match packets, for which (depending on the type of the set) the source address or port number of the packet can be found in the specified set. If there is a binding belonging to the mached set element or there is a default binding for the given set, then the rule will match the packet only if additionally (depending on the type of the set) the destination address or port number of the packet can be found in the set according to the binding. (Old option name --set is still supported.)

state

This module, when combined with connection tracking, allows access to the connection tracking state for this packet.

[!] --state state

Where state is a comma separated list of the connection states to match. Possible states are INVALID meaning that the packet could not be identified for some reason which includes running out of memory and ICMP errors which don't correspond to any known connection, ESTABLISHED meaning that the packet is associated with a connection which has seen packets in both directions, NEW meaning that the packet has started a new connection, or otherwise associated with a connection which has not seen packets in both directions, and RELATED meaning that the packet is starting a new connection, but is associated with an existing connection, such as an FTP data transfer, or an ICMP error.

statistic

This module matches packets based on some statistic condition. It supports two distinct modes settable with the --mode option.

Supported options:

--mode mode

Set the matching mode of the matching rule, supported modes are random and nth.

--probability p

Set the probability from 0 to 1 for a packet to be randomly matched. It works only with the random mode.

--every n

Match one packet every nth packet. It works only with the nth mode (see also the

--packet option).
--packet p
Set the initial counter value (0 <= p <= n-1, default 0) for the nth mode.

string

This modules matches a given string by using some pattern matching strategy. It requires a linux kernel >= 2.6.14.

--algo {bm|kmp}

Select the pattern matching strategy. (bm = Boyer-Moore, kmp = Knuth-Pratt-Morris)

--from offset

Set the offset from which it starts looking for any matching. If not passed, default is 0.

--to offset

Set the offset from which it starts looking for any matching. If not passed, default is the packet size.

[!] --string pattern

Matches the given pattern.

[!] --hex-string pattern

Matches the given pattern in hex notation.

tcp

These extensions can be used if `--protocol tcp' is specified. It provides the following options:

[!] --source-port,--sport port[:port]

Source port or port range specification. This can either be a service name or a port number. An inclusive range can also be specified, using the format port:port. If the first port is omitted, "0" is assumed; if the last is omitted, "65535" is assumed. If the second port greater then the first they will be swapped. The flag --sport is a convenient alias for this option.

[!] --destination-port,--dport port[,port]

Destination port or port range specification. The flag --dport is a convenient alias for this option.

Match when the TCP flags are as specified. The first argument mask is the flags which we should examine, written as a comma-separated list, and the second argument comp is a comma-separated list of flags which must be set. Flags are: SYN ACK FIN RST URG PSH ALL NONE. Hence the command

iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp --tcp-flags SYN,ACK,FIN,RST SYN

will only match packets with the SYN flag set, and the ACK, FIN and RST flags unset.

[!] --syn

Only match TCP packets with the SYN bit set and the ACK,RST and FIN bits cleared. Such packets are used to request TCP connection initiation; for example, blocking such packets coming in an interface will prevent incoming TCP connections, but outgoing TCP connections will be unaffected. It is equivalent to --tcp-flags SYN,RST,ACK,FIN SYN. If the "!" flag precedes the "--syn", the sense of the option is inverted.

[!] --tcp-option number

Match if TCP option set.

tcpmss

This matches the TCP MSS (maximum segment size) field of the TCP header. You can only use this on TCP SYN or SYN/ACK packets, since the MSS is only negotiated during the TCP handshake at connection startup time.

[!] --mss value[:value]

Match a given TCP MSS value or range.

time

This matches if the packet arrival time/date is within a given range. All options are optional, but are ANDed when specified.

--datestart YYYY[-MM[-DD[Thh[:mm[:ss]]]]]

--datestop YYYY[-MM[-DD[Thh[:mm[:ss]]]]]

Only match during the given time, which must be in ISO 8601 "T" notation. The possible time range is 1970-01-01T00:00:00 to 2038-01-19T04:17:07.

If --datestart or --datestop are not specified, it will default to 1970-01-01 and 2038-01-19, respectively.

--timestart hh:mm[:ss]

--timestop hh:mm[:ss]

Only match during the given daytime. The possible time range is 00:00:00 to 23:59:59. Leading zeroes are allowed (e.g. "06:03") and correctly interpreted as base-10.

[!] --monthdays day[,day...]

Only match on the given days of the month. Possible values are 1 to 31. Note that specifying 31 will of course not match on months which do not have a 31st day; the same goes for 28- or 29-day February.

[!] --weekdays day[,day...]

Only match on the given weekdays. Possible values are Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun, or values from 1 to 7, respectively. You may also use two-character variants (Mo, Tu, etc.).

--utc

Interpret the times given for --datestart, --datestop, --timestart and --timestop to be UTC.

--localtz

Interpret the times given for --datestart, --datestop, --timestart and --timestop to be local kernel time. (Default)

EXAMPLES. To match on weekends, use:

-m time --weekdays Sa,Su

Or, to match (once) on a national holiday block:

-m time --datestart 2007-12-24 --datestop 2007-12-27

Since the stop time is actually inclusive, you would need the following stop time to not match the first second of the new day:

-m time --datestart 2007-01-01T17:00 --datestop 2007-01-01T23:59:59

During lunch hour:

-m time --timestart 12:30 --timestop 13:30

The fourth Friday in the month:

-m time --weekdays Fr --monthdays 22,23,24,25,26,27,28

(Note that this exploits a certain mathematical property. It is not possible to say "fourth Thursday OR fourth Friday" in one rule. It is possible with multiple rules, though.)

tos

This module matches the 8-bit Type of Service field in the IPv4 header (i.e. including the "Precedence" bits) or the (also 8-bit) Priority field in the IPv6 header.

Matches packets with the given TOS mark value. If a mask is specified, it is logically ANDed with the TOS mark before the comparison.

[!] --tos symbol

You can specify a symbolic name when using the tos match for IPv4. The list of recognized TOS names can be obtained by calling iptables with -m tos -h. Note that this implies a mask of 0x3F, i.e. all but the ECN bits.

ttl

This module matches the time to live field in the IP header.

--ttl-eq ttl

Matches the given TTL value.

--ttl-gt ttl

Matches if TTL is greater than the given TTL value.

--ttl-lt ttl

Matches if TTL is less than the given TTL value.

u32

U32 tests whether quantities of up to 4 bytes extracted from a packet have specified values. The specification of what to extract is general enough to find data at given offsets from tcp headers or payloads.

[!] --u32 tests

The argument amounts to a program in a small language described below.

tests := location "=" value | tests "&&" location "=" value
value := range | value "," range
range := number | number ":" number

a single number, n, is interpreted the same as n:n. n:m is interpreted as the range of numbers >=n and <=m.

location := number | location operator number
operator := "&" | "<<" | ">>" | "@"

The operators &, <<, >> and && mean the same as in C. The = is really a set membership operator and the value syntax describes a set. The @ operator is what allows moving to the next header and is described further below.

There are currently some artificial implementation limits on the size of the tests:

*
no more than 10 of "=" (and 9 "&&"s) in the u32 argument
*
no more than 10 ranges (and 9 commas) per value
*
no more than 10 numbers (and 9 operators) per location

To describe the meaning of location, imagine the following machine that interprets it. There are three registers:

A is of type char *, initially the address of the IP header
B and C are unsigned 32 bit integers, initially zero

The instructions are:

number B = number;
C = (*(A+B)<<24) + (*(A+B+1)<<16) + (*(A+B+2)<<8) + *(A+B+3)
&number C = C & number
<< number C = C << number
>> number C = C >> number
@number A = A + C; then do the instruction number

Any access of memory outside [skb->data,skb->end] causes the match to fail. Otherwise the result of the computation is the final value of C.

Whitespace is allowed but not required in the tests. However, the characters that do occur there are likely to require shell quoting, so it is a good idea to enclose the arguments in quotes.

Example:

match IP packets with total length >= 256
The IP header contains a total length field in bytes 2-3.
--u32 "0 & 0xFFFF = 0x100:0xFFFF"
AND that with 0xFFFF (giving bytes 2-3), and test whether that is in the range [0x100:0xFFFF]

Example: (more realistic, hence more complicated)

match ICMP packets with icmp type 0
First test that it is an ICMP packet, true iff byte 9 (protocol) = 1

--u32 "6 & 0xFF = 1 && ...
read bytes 6-9, use & to throw away bytes 6-8 and compare the result to 1. Next test that it is not a fragment. (If so, it might be part of such a packet but we cannot always tell.) N.B.: This test is generally needed if you want to match anything beyond the IP header. The last 6 bits of byte 6 and all of byte 7 are 0 iff this is a complete packet (not a fragment). Alternatively, you can allow first fragments by only testing the last 5 bits of byte 6.

... 4 & 0x3FFF = 0 && ...
Last test: the first byte past the IP header (the type) is 0. This is where we have to use the @syntax. The length of the IP header (IHL) in 32 bit words is stored in the right half of byte 0 of the IP header itself.

... 0 >> 22 & 0x3C @ 0 >> 24 = 0"
The first 0 means read bytes 0-3, >>22 means shift that 22 bits to the right. Shifting 24 bits would give the first byte, so only 22 bits is four times that plus a few more bits. &3C then eliminates the two extra bits on the right and the first four bits of the first byte. For instance, if IHL=5, then the IP header is 20 (4 x 5) bytes long. In this case, bytes 0-1 are (in binary) xxxx0101 yyzzzzzz, >>22 gives the 10 bit value xxxx0101yy and &3C gives 010100. @ means to use this number as a new offset into the packet, and read four bytes starting from there. This is the first 4 bytes of the ICMP payload, of which byte 0 is the ICMP type. Therefore, we simply shift the value 24 to the right to throw out all but the first byte and compare the result with 0.

Example:

TCP payload bytes 8-12 is any of 1, 2, 5 or 8

First we test that the packet is a tcp packet (similar to ICMP).

--u32 "6 & 0xFF = 6 && ...

Next, test that it is not a fragment (same as above).

... 0 >> 22 & 0x3C @ 12 >> 26 & 0x3C @ 8 = 1,2,5,8"
0>>22&3C as above computes the number of bytes in the IP header. @ makes this the new offset into the packet, which is the start of the TCP header. The length of the TCP header (again in 32 bit words) is the left half of byte 12 of the TCP header. The 12>>26&3C computes this length in bytes (similar to the IP header before). "@" makes this the new offset, which is the start of the TCP payload. Finally, 8 reads bytes 8-12 of the payload and = checks whether the result is any of 1, 2, 5 or 8.

udp
These extensions can be used if `--protocol udp' is specified. It provides the following options:

[!] --source-port,--sport port[:port]

Source port or port range specification. See the description of the --source-port option of the TCP extension for details.

[!] --destination-port,--dport port[:port]

Destination port or port range specification. See the description of the --destination-port option of the TCP extension for details.

unclean
This module takes no options, but attempts to match packets which seem malformed or unusual. This is regarded as experimental.

TARGET EXTENSIONS

iptables can use extended target modules: the following are included in the standard distribution.

CLASSIFY

This module allows you to set the skb->priority value (and thus classify the packet into a specific CBQ class).

--set-class major:minor
Set the major and minor class value.

CLUSTERIP

This module allows you to configure a simple cluster of nodes that share a certain IP and MAC address without an explicit load balancer in front of them. Connections are statically distributed between the nodes in this cluster.

--new

Create a new ClusterIP. You always have to set this on the first rule for a given ClusterIP.

--hashmode mode

Specify the hashing mode. Has to be one of sourceip, sourceip-sourceport, sourceip-sourceport-destport

--clustermac mac

--total-nodes num

Number of total nodes within this cluster.

--local-node num

Local node number within this cluster.

--hash-init rnd

Specify the random seed used for hash initialization.

CONNMARK

This module sets the netfilter mark value associated with a connection.

Zero out the bits given by mask and XOR value into the ctmark.

Copy the packet mark (nfmark) to the connection mark (ctmark) using the given masks. The new nfmark value is determined as follows:

i.e. ctmask defines what bits to clear and nfmask what bits of the nfmark to XOR into the ctmark. ctmask and nfmask default to 0xFFFFFFFF.

Copy the connection mark (ctmark) to the packet mark (nfmark) using the given masks. The new ctmark value is determined as follows:

i.e. nfmask defines what bits to clear and ctmask what bits of the ctmark to XOR into the nfmark. ctmask and nfmask default to 0xFFFFFFFF.

--restore-mark is only valid in the mangle table.

The following mnemonics are available for --set-xmark:

--and-mark bits

Binary AND the ctmark with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-xmark 0/invbits, where invbits is the binary negation of bits.)

--or-mark bits

Binary OR the ctmark with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-xmark bits/bits.)

--xor-mark bits

Binary XOR the ctmark with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-xmark bits/0.)

Set the connection mark. If a mask is specified then only those bits set in the mask are modified.

Copy the nfmark to the ctmark. If a mask is specified, only those bits are copied.

Copy the ctmark to the nfmark. If a mask is specified, only those bits are copied. This is only valid in the mangle table.

CONNSECMARK

This module copies security markings from packets to connections (if unlabeled), and from connections back to packets (also only if unlabeled). Typically used in conjunction with SECMARK, it is only valid in the mangle table.

--save

If the packet has a security marking, copy it to the connection if the connection is not marked.

--restore

If the packet does not have a security marking, and the connection does, copy the security marking from the connection to the packet.

DNAT

This target is only valid in the nat table, in the PREROUTING and OUTPUT chains, and user-defined chains which are only called from those chains. It specifies that the destination address of the packet should be modified (and all future packets in this connection will also be mangled), and rules should cease being examined. It takes one type of option:

which can specify a single new destination IP address, an inclusive range of IP addresses, and optionally, a port range (which is only valid if the rule also specifies -p tcp or -p udp). If no port range is specified, then the destination port will never be modified. If no IP address is specified then only the destination port will be modified.

In Kernels up to 2.6.10 you can add several --to-destination options. For those kernels, if you specify more than one destination address, either via an address range or multiple --to-destination options, a simple round-robin (one after another in cycle) load balancing takes place between these addresses. Later Kernels (>= 2.6.11-rc1) don't have the ability to NAT to multiple ranges anymore.

--random

If option --random is used then port mapping will be randomized (kernel >= 2.6.22).

DSCP

This target allows to alter the value of the DSCP bits within the TOS header of the IPv4 packet. As this manipulates a packet, it can only be used in the mangle table.

--set-dscp value

Set the DSCP field to a numerical value (can be decimal or hex)

--set-dscp-class class

Set the DSCP field to a DiffServ class.

ECN

This target allows to selectively work around known ECN blackholes. It can only be used in the mangle table.

--ecn-tcp-remove

Remove all ECN bits from the TCP header. Of course, it can only be used in conjunction with -p tcp.

LOG

Turn on kernel logging of matching packets. When this option is set for a rule, the Linux kernel will print some information on all matching packets (like most IP header fields) via the kernel log (where it can be read with dmesg or syslogd(8)). This is a "non-terminating target", i.e. rule traversal continues at the next rule. So if you want to LOG the packets you refuse, use two separate rules with the same matching criteria, first using target LOG then DROP (or REJECT).

--log-level level

Level of logging (numeric or see syslog.conf(5)).

--log-prefix prefix

Prefix log messages with the specified prefix; up to 29 letters long, and useful for distinguishing messages in the logs.

--log-tcp-sequence

Log TCP sequence numbers. This is a security risk if the log is readable by users.

--log-tcp-options

Log options from the TCP packet header.

--log-ip-options

Log options from the IP packet header.

--log-uid

Log the userid of the process which generated the packet.

MARK

This target is used to set the Netfilter mark value associated with the packet. The target can only be used in the mangle table. It can, for example, be used in conjunction with routing based on fwmark (needs iproute2).

Zeroes out the bits given by mask and XORs value into the packet mark ("nfmark"). If mask is omitted, 0xFFFFFFFF is assumed.

Zeroes out the bits given by mask and ORs value into the packet mark. If mask is omitted, 0xFFFFFFFF is assumed.

The following mnemonics are available:

--and-mark bits

Binary AND the nfmark with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-xmark 0/invbits, where invbits is the binary negation of bits.)

--or-mark bits

Binary OR the nfmark with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-xmark bits/bits.)

--xor-mark bits

Binary XOR the nfmark with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-xmark bits/0.)

This target is only valid in the nat table, in the POSTROUTING chain. It should only be used with dynamically assigned IP (dialup) connections: if you have a static IP address, you should use the SNAT target. Masquerading is equivalent to specifying a mapping to the IP address of the interface the packet is going out, but also has the effect that connections are forgotten when the interface goes down. This is the correct behavior when the next dialup is unlikely to have the same interface address (and hence any established connections are lost anyway). It takes one option:

--to-ports port[-port]

This specifies a range of source ports to use, overriding the default SNAT source port-selection heuristics (see above). This is only valid if the rule also specifies -p tcp or -p udp.

--random

Randomize source port mapping If option --random is used then port mapping will be randomized (kernel >= 2.6.21).

MIRROR

This is an experimental demonstration target which inverts the source and destination fields in the IP header and retransmits the packet. It is only valid in the INPUT, FORWARD and PREROUTING chains, and user-defined chains which are only called from those chains. Note that the outgoing packets are NOT seen by any packet filtering chains, connection tracking or NAT, to avoid loops and other problems.

NETMAP

This target allows you to statically map a whole network of addresses onto another network of addresses. It can only be used from rules in the nat table.

Network address to map to. The resulting address will be constructed in the following way: All 'one' bits in the mask are filled in from the new `address'. All bits that are zero in the mask are filled in from the original address.

NFLOG

This target provides logging of matching packets. When this target is set for a rule, the Linux kernel will pass the packet to the loaded logging backend to log the packet. This is usually used in combination with nfnetlink_log as logging backend, which will multicast the packet through a netlink socket to the specified multicast group. One or more userspace processes may subscribe to the group to receive the packets. Like LOG, this is a non-terminating target, i.e. rule traversal continues at the next rule.

--nflog-group nlgroup

The netlink group (1 - 2^32-1) to which packets are (only applicable for nfnetlink_log). The default value is 0.

--nflog-prefix prefix

A prefix string to include in the log message, up to 64 characters long, useful for distinguishing messages in the logs.

--nflog-range size

The number of bytes to be copied to userspace (only applicable for nfnetlink_log). nfnetlink_log instances may specify their own range, this option overrides it.

--nflog-threshold size

Number of packets to queue inside the kernel before sending them to userspace (only applicable for nfnetlink_log). Higher values result in less overhead per packet, but increase delay until the packets reach userspace. The default value is 1. .SSNFQUEUE This target is an extension of the QUEUE target. As opposed to QUEUE, it allows you to put a packet into any specific queue, identified by its 16-bit queue number.

--queue-num value

This specifies the QUEUE number to use. Valid queue numbers are 0 to 65535. The default value is 0.

It can only be used with Kernel versions 2.6.14 or later, since it requires the nfnetlink_queue kernel support.

NOTRACK

This target disables connection tracking for all packets matching that rule.

It can only be used in the raw table.

RATEEST

The RATEEST target collects statistics, performs rate estimation calculation and saves the results for later evaluation using the rateest match.

--rateest-name name

Count matched packets into the pool referred to by name, which is freely choosable.

--rateest-interval amount{s|ms|us}

Rate measurement interval, in seconds, milliseconds or microseconds.

--rateest-ewmalog value

Rate measurement averaging time constant.

REDIRECT

This target is only valid in the nat table, in the PREROUTING and OUTPUT chains, and user-defined chains which are only called from those chains. It redirects the packet to the machine itself by changing the destination IP to the primary address of the incoming interface (locally-generated packets are mapped to the 127.0.0.1 address).

--to-ports port[-port]

This specifies a destination port or range of ports to use: without this, the destination port is never altered. This is only valid if the rule also specifies -p tcp or -p udp.

--random

If option --random is used then port mapping will be randomized (kernel >= 2.6.22).

REJECT

This is used to send back an error packet in response to the matched packet: otherwise it is equivalent to DROP so it is a terminating TARGET, ending rule traversal. This target is only valid in the INPUT, FORWARD and OUTPUT chains, and user-defined chains which are only called from those chains. The following option controls the nature of the error packet returned:

--reject-with type

The type given can be

icmp-net-unreachable
icmp-host-unreachable
icmp-port-unreachable
icmp-proto-unreachable
icmp-net-prohibited
icmp-host-prohibited or

which return the appropriate ICMP error message (port-unreachable is the default). The option tcp-reset can be used on rules which only match the TCP protocol: this causes a TCP RST packet to be sent back. This is mainly useful for blocking ident (113/tcp) probes which frequently occur when sending mail to broken mail hosts (which won't accept your mail otherwise).

(*) Using icmp-admin-prohibited with kernels that do not support it will result in a plain DROP instead of REJECT

SAME

Similar to SNAT/DNAT depending on chain: it takes a range of addresses (`--to 1.2.3.4-1.2.3.7') and gives a client the same source-/destination-address for each connection.

Addresses to map source to. May be specified more than once for multiple ranges.

--nodst

Don't use the destination-ip in the calculations when selecting the new source-ip

--random

Port mapping will be forcibly randomized to avoid attacks based on port prediction (kernel >= 2.6.21).

SECMARK

This is used to set the security mark value associated with the packet for use by security subsystems such as SELinux. It is only valid in the mangle table.

--selctx security_context

SET

This modules adds and/or deletes entries from IP sets which can be defined by ipset(8).

--del-set setname flag[,flag...]

delete the address(es)/port(s) of the packet from the sets, where flags are src and/or dst and there can be no more than six of them.

The bindings to follow must previously be defined in order to use multilevel adding/deleting by the SET target.

SNAT

This target is only valid in the nat table, in the POSTROUTING chain. It specifies that the source address of the packet should be modified (and all future packets in this connection will also be mangled), and rules should cease being examined. It takes one type of option:

which can specify a single new source IP address, an inclusive range of IP addresses, and optionally, a port range (which is only valid if the rule also specifies -p tcp or -p udp). If no port range is specified, then source ports below 512 will be mapped to other ports below 512: those between 512 and 1023 inclusive will be mapped to ports below 1024, and other ports will be mapped to 1024 or above. Where possible, no port alteration will

In Kernels up to 2.6.10, you can add several --to-source options. For those kernels, if you specify more than one source address, either via an address range or multiple --to-source options, a simple round-robin (one after another in cycle) takes place between these addresses. Later Kernels (>= 2.6.11-rc1) don't have the ability to NAT to multiple ranges anymore.

--random

If option --random is used then port mapping will be randomized (kernel >= 2.6.21).

TCPMSS

This target allows to alter the MSS value of TCP SYN packets, to control the maximum size for that connection (usually limiting it to your outgoing interface's MTU minus 40 for IPv4 or 60 for IPv6, respectively). Of course, it can only be used in conjunction with -p tcp. It is only valid in the mangle table.

This target is used to overcome criminally braindead ISPs or servers which block "ICMP Fragmentation Needed" or "ICMPv6 Packet Too Big" packets. The symptoms of this problem are that everything works fine from your Linux firewall/router, but machines behind it can never exchange large packets:

1)
Web browsers connect, then hang with no data received.
2)
Small mail works fine, but large emails hang.
3)
ssh works fine, but scp hangs after initial handshaking.

Workaround: activate this option and add a rule to your firewall configuration like:

iptables -t mangle -A FORWARD -p tcp --tcp-flags SYN,RST SYN \
-j TCPMSS --clamp-mss-to-pmtu

--set-mss value

Explicitly set MSS option to specified value.

--clamp-mss-to-pmtu

Automatically clamp MSS value to (path_MTU - 40 for IPv4; -60 for IPv6).

These options are mutually exclusive.

TCPOPTSTRIP

This target will strip TCP options off a TCP packet. (It will actually replace them by NO-OPs.) As such, you will need to add the -p tcp parameters.

--strip-options option[,option...]

Strip the given option(s). The options may be specified by TCP option number or by symbolic name. The list of recognized options can be obtained by calling iptables with -j TCPOPTSTRIP -h.

TOS

This module sets the Type of Service field in the IPv4 header (including the shares the same bits as DSCP and ECN. The TOS target is only valid in the mangle table.

Zeroes out the bits given by mask and XORs value into the TOS/Priority field. If mask is omitted, 0xFF is assumed.

--set-tos symbol

You can specify a symbolic name when using the TOS target for IPv4. It implies a mask of 0xFF. The list of recognized TOS names can be obtained by calling iptables with -j TOS -h.

The following mnemonics are available:

--and-tos bits

Binary AND the TOS value with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-tos 0/invbits, where invbits is the binary negation of bits.)

--or-tos bits

Binary OR the TOS value with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-tos bits/bits.)

--xor-tos bits

Binary XOR the TOS value with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-tos bits/0.)

TRACE

This target marks packes so that the kernel will log every rule which match the packets as those traverse the tables, chains, rules. (The ipt_LOG or ip6t_LOG module is required for the logging.) The packets are logged with the string prefix: "TRACE: tablename:chainname:type:rulenum " where type can be "rule" for plain rule, "return" for implicit rule at the end of a user defined chain and "policy" for the policy of the built in chains.

It can only be used in the raw table.

TTL

This is used to modify the IPv4 TTL header field. The TTL field determines how many hops (routers) a packet can traverse until it's time to live is exceeded.

Setting or incrementing the TTL field can potentially be very dangerous, so it should be avoided at any cost.

Don't ever set or increment the value on packets that leave your local network! mangle table.

--ttl-set value

Set the TTL value to `value'.

--ttl-dec value

Decrement the TTL value `value' times.

--ttl-inc value

Increment the TTL value `value' times.

ULOG

This target provides userspace logging of matching packets. When this target is set for a rule, the Linux kernel will multicast this packet through a netlink socket. One or more userspace processes may then subscribe to various multicast groups and receive the packets. Like LOG, this is a "non-terminating target", i.e. rule traversal continues at the next rule.

--ulog-nlgroup nlgroup

This specifies the netlink group (1-32) to which the packet is sent. Default value is 1.

--ulog-prefix prefix

Prefix log messages with the specified prefix; up to 32 characters long, and useful for distinguishing messages in the logs.

--ulog-cprange size

Number of bytes to be copied to userspace. A value of 0 always copies the entire packet, regardless of its size. Default is 0.

--ulog-qthreshold size

Number of packet to queue inside kernel. Setting this value to, e.g. 10 accumulates ten packets inside the kernel and transmits them as one netlink multipart message to userspace. Default is 1 (for backwards compatibility).

DIAGNOSTICS

Various error messages are printed to standard error. The exit code is 0 for correct functioning. Errors which appear to be caused by invalid or abused command line parameters cause an exit code of 2, and other errors cause an exit code of 1.

BUGS
Bugs? What's this? ;-) Well, you might want to have a look at
http://bugzilla.netfilter.org/
COMPATIBILITY WITH IPCHAINS
This iptables is very similar to ipchains by Rusty Russell. The main difference is that the chains INPUT and OUTPUT are only traversed for packets coming into the local host and originating from the local host respectively. Hence every packet only passes through one of the three chains (except loopback traffic, which involves both INPUT and OUTPUT chains); previously a forwarded packet would pass through all three.

The other main difference is that -i refers to the input interface; -o refers to the output interface, and both are available for packets entering the FORWARD chain.

The various forms of NAT have been separated out; iptables is a pure packet filter when using the default `filter' table, with optional extension modules. This should simplify much of the previous confusion over the combination of IP masquerading and packet filtering seen previously. So the following options are handled differently:

-j MASQ
-M -S
-M -L

There are several other changes in iptables.
iptables-save(8), iptables-restore(8), ip6tables(8), ip6tables-save(8), ip6tables-restore(8), libipq(3).

The packet-filtering-HOWTO details iptables usage for packet filtering, the NAT-HOWTO details NAT, the netfilter-extensions-HOWTO details the extensions that are not in the standard distribution, and the netfilter-hacking-HOWTO details the netfilter internals.
See http://www.netfilter.org/.
AUTHORS
Rusty Russell originally wrote iptables, in early consultation with Michael Neuling.

Marc Boucher made Rusty abandon ipnatctl by lobbying for a generic packet selection framework in iptables, then wrote the mangle table, the owner match, the mark stuff, and ran around doing cool stuff everywhere.

James Morris wrote the TOS target, and tos match.

Jozsef Kadlecsik wrote the REJECT target.

Harald Welte wrote the ULOG and NFQUEUE target, the new libiptc, as well as the TTL, DSCP, ECN matches and targets.

The Netfilter Core Team is: Marc Boucher, Martin Josefsson, Yasuyuki Kozakai, Jozsef Kadlecsik, Patrick McHardy, James Morris, Pablo Neira Ayuso, Harald Welte and Rusty Russell.

Man page originally written by Herve Eychenne .

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
TARGETS
TABLES
OPTIONS

COMMANDS
PARAMETERS
OTHER OPTIONS

MATCH EXTENSIONS

ah
comment
connbytes
connlimit
connmark
conntrack
dscp
ecn
esp
hashlimit
helper
icmp
iprange
length
limit
mac
mark
multiport
owner
physdev
pkttype
policy
quota
rateest
realm
recent
sctp
set
state
statistic
string
tcp
tcpmss
time
tos
ttl
u32
udp
unclean

TARGET EXTENSIONS

CLASSIFY
CLUSTERIP
CONNMARK
CONNSECMARK
DNAT
DSCP
ECN
LOG
MARK
MIRROR
NETMAP
NFLOG
NOTRACK
RATEEST
REDIRECT
REJECT
SAME
SECMARK
SET
SNAT
TCPMSS
TCPOPTSTRIP
TOS
TRACE
TTL
ULOG