Network Card Promiscuous Mode.

Network cards can work either with Promiscuous mode (mixed mode, listening mode) on or off.

When Promiscuous mode is off, they receive only packets addressed to IP address of the internet device (for example: computer, or phone) they are interface to.

When Promiscuous mode is on, they receive all packets that they are aware of. This allows for packet sniffing (reading data from Local Area Network or the Internet).


Is new version of software always best?

Not always (usually not).

We should want simpler and cheaper software, without too much code.

Every version can be merged (combined) with any other version (or should). Software should be built from modules, that can be combined to meet user's demands, and nothing more.

More code equals more errors, vulnerabilities, and costs (money, time, computing resources and more).

Best to contact seller and order custom built version.

How trusted nodes (Internet devices) enhance Security?

Internet traffic goes via nodes.

It's better to route internet data packets via trusted ones (in case of 'sniffing', or intercepting data packets, more or less).

It also allows for faster transmission, for less retransmissions are needed (in case of internet packets being lost or changed), and thus to maneuver faster in the Internet.

See also: this post.

What is VPN?

Virtual Private Network.

Using IPSec (Internet Protocol Layer Security), a company can communicate securely in the nonsecure public Internet. IPSec is part of VPN.

For example: Consider a company that has a large number of travelling salespeople, each possessing a company laptop computer. Suppose the salespeople need to frequently consult sensitive company information (for example, pricing and product information) that is stored on a server in the company's headquarters. Further suppose that the salespeople also need to send sensitive documents to each other. VPNs can do it all.


How to hack ethically.

For hacking exercises you need 3 computers (2 communicating machines, and attacker machine). Virtual Machines can be used too.

This way no one gets hurt by hacking exercises, as they are performed in LAN (Local Area Network).

This can be done even without accessing internet, so people can feel more secure.