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3/30/14

MATEN Mathematics.

Stitie Machine.

def. Stitie Machine SM is a value from a Set SMS. Each SM belonging to set SMS consists of: a state, a strategy and a router.

SM = { state, strategy, router }.

State = data, from any Set.

Strategy = function, can operate on State, transform it to another or the same State and/or have side effects.

Router = function that lets Stitie Machine's State and Strategy reach into other Stitie Machines, and be executed there.


Three-dimensional Stitie Space.

def. Three-dimensional Stitie Space is an ordered set of size3 Stitie Machines, arranged in three dimensions.

StitieSpace = SMS x SMS x SMS.


Three-dimensional MATEN function.

def. Three-dimensional MATEN function transforms Three-dimensional Stitie Space into a Three-dimensional Stitie Space.

MATEN: StitieSpace -> StitieSpace.

3/29/14

Channel Partitioning Protocols.

Introduction.

Channel partitioning protocols are multiple access protocols used to partition a broadcast channel's bandwidth among all nodes (internet devices) sharing that channel.

Perhaps a human analogy for a broadcast channel would be a cocktail party, where many people gather in a larger room (the air providing the broadcast medium) to talk and listen. A second good analogy is a classroom - where teacher(s) and student(s) similarly share the same, single, broadcast medium. A central problem in both scenarios is that of determining who goes to talk (that is, transmit into the channel), and when.

Computers use protocols - so called multiple access protocols by which nodes regulate transmission into the shared broadcast channel.


Time division multiplexing (TDM).

 photo TDM_zps7556e93e.jpg


In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (sometimes contracted to muxing) is a method by which multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. The aim is to share an expensive resource. For example, in telecommunications, several telephone calls may be carried using one wire.

TDM divides time into time frames and further divides each time frame into N time slots. Each slot time is then assigned to one of the N nodes. Whenever a node has a packet to send, it transmits the packet's bits during its assigned time slot in the revolving TDM frame.

Returning to our cocktail party analogy, a TDM-regulated cocktail party would allow one partygoer to speak for a fixed period of time, then allow another partygoer to speak for the same amount of time, and so on. Once everyone had a chance to talk, the pattern would repeat.


Frequency division multiplexing (FDM).

 photo FDM_zps80adbb37.jpg


While TDM shares the broadcast channel in time, FDM divides the R bps channel into different frequencies (each with a bandwidth of R/N) and assigns each frequency to one of the N nodes. FDM thus creates N smaller channels of R/N bps out of the single, larger R bps channel.


Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).

In a CDMA protocol, each bit being sent is encoded by multiplying the bit by a signal (the code) that changes at a much faster rate (known as the chipping rate) than the original sequence of bits.

Such encoded signals can be aggregated (summed) and transmitted via the channel. if codes are chosen carefully, each receiver can recover the data sent by a given sender out of the aggregate signal simply by using the sender's code.

For example: signal A might be multiplied by +1 and -1 for 1 and 0 bits, signal B by +2 and -2, signal C by +4 and -4, and so on.

If we transmit value 3, we know unambiguously that it's 4+1-2, and can decode bytes appropriately.


In practice it is a little more complex.


Source: [3], Wikipedia.

3/28/14

Stitie Space as Hardware.

Stitie Space is more than just finite state object cubes.

There's also other 'infrastructure functionality' that does not fit 'scalable cube' model.

How to fit it into hardware so it remains 'scalable cube'?

Perhaps extra functionality can be implemented as classic, flat memory/processor model and fit in hardware in between cubes.

Even if it's not so flat and straight, it can be mapped to such with ease.

see also, if You wish or need:
- Part of Hardware Shot Away, Rest Works Somehow Still ...

3/26/14

MATEN Types.

MATEN (Certain Form Invocation in Stitie Space) can be:

* Seeding MATEN: invokes a Form, invocation will seed an 'initial state' in a Stitie Space. Such an 'initial state' can be a 'zero state' or not.
* Transforming MATEN: can invoke a Form, invocation will transform 'current state' of a Stitie Space into a 'transformed state' of a Stitie Space.
* Injecting MATEN: Transforming MATEN can be used to inject something into a Stitie Space. To smartly seek an 'empty spot' in Stitie Space, then put something there, and perhaps establish communication with other software components existing in this a Form. There is no 'standard communication method' between components - all depends on how they will be used. Perhaps they will be moving, perhaps not. One of possible implementations is to have unmoving components indexed, their coordinates stored, and making them responsible for handling communication with moving components in their area - just like with access points and mobile internet devices.

See: Stitie Machine 1.1 'Sunsail'.

3/24/14

Medium Access Protocols.

When internet devices communicate over a shared medium, a protocol is needed so that signals - the messages sent over medium - do not interfere with each other.

Shared medium is for example: an ethernet's coaxial cable used to transmit messages. It's called 'shared', because multiple network cards can access it simultaneously which often results in a message collisions. Just like sending message into ether, where everyone and anyone can hear it.

There's the difference between a signal and a message, as far as the Computer Sciences and the Internet Theory goes. These words have multiple meanings, depending on context. For purpose of this post, however, you can think of a signal as of a mean of transmitting information (message) over a medium (physical link between internet devices that can be shared by more than two of such devices).

Message collision are such... most often it's known who (which device) sends which message to who. But collisions result in malformed messages... just like a wet envelopes with unreadable addresses and damaged letters. The Internet is fast, so malformed messages can be retransmitted and protocols used to help to avoid such damaging collisions and a message loss at the cost of speed.

There are three classes of medium access protocols:

* channel partitioning,
* random access,
* taking turns.

In a wireless LAN (Local Area Network) and cellular technologies a protocol named CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) is prevalent and important. CDMA belongs to the family of channel partitioning protocols.

(to be elaborated in other posts).

Source: [3].

3/22/14

Wireless Links Network Characteristics.

We can find number of important differencies between a wired link and a wireless link:

* Decreasing signal strength - electromagnetic radiation attenuates as it passes through matter. Even in free space, the signal will disperse, resulting in decreased signal strength (sometimes referred to as path loss) as the distance between sender and receiver increases.
* Interference from other sources - radio sources transmitting in the same frequency band will interfere with each other.
* Multipath propagation - occurs when portions of the electromagnetic wave reflect off objects and the ground, taking paths of different lengths between a sender and receiver. This results in the blurring of the received signal at the receiver. Moving objects between the sender and receiver can cause multipath propagation to change over time.

Errors, signal loss and correction.

The discussion above suggests that bit errors will be more common in wireless links than in wired links. For this reason, it's perhaps not suprising that wireless link protocols employ not only powerful CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) error detection codes, but also link-level reliable-data transfer protocols that retransmits corrupted frames.

Signal to noise ratio.

Host receives a signal from the sender, degraded by attenuation and multipath propagation and also receives background noise in the enironment. The signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) is a relative measure of the strength of the received (i.e., the information being transmitted) and this noise. SNR is measured in decibels (dB), a unit of measure which confuses computer scientists.

Better SNR, the less errors and faster transmission - sometimes it's better to walk around a place to find a perfect communication spot.

Hidden Terminal Problem.

If an internet device A communicates with an internet device B, and internet device C communicates with the same device B there can be signal collisions, signal strength detoriating that way. Communication that way (via the internet device B) can be caused by situations such as:

* an obstacle preventing direct communication between internet device A and internet device C,
* distance between internet device A and internet device C and signal fading effect.

Source: [3].

Introduction to Wireless Networks.

Wireless. photo Wireless_zps2db6e6bd.jpg

Wireless Network.



Wireless Network consists of following pieces:

* Wireless hosts - end systems that run applications.
* Wireless links - connect hosts to other hosts or base station through a wireless communication link. Sometimes also used within a network to connect routers, switches, and other network equipment.
* Base station - is a key part of the wireless network infrastructure. A base station has no obvious counterpart in a wired network.
* Network infrastructure - this is the larger network with which a wireless host may wish to communicate.

Wireless Modes:

* Infrastructure mode - hosts associated with a base station are often referred to as operating in infrastructure mode, since all traditional network services (e.g., address assignment and routing) are provided by the network to which a host is connected via the base station.
* Ad-hoc network - in such networks wireless hosts have no infrastructure with which to connect. In the absence of such infrastructure, the hosts themselves must provide for services such as routing, address assignment, DNS-like name translation, and more.

We can classify wireless networks according to the two criteria:

* Whether a packet in the wireless network crosses exactly one wireless hop or multiple wireless hops.
* Whether there is infrastructure such as a base station in the network.

There's the difference between mobile device and wireless link.

Source: [3].

Why Wireless?

'Regardless of the future growth of the Internet devices, it's already clear that wireless networks and the mobility-related services they enable, are here to stay.'


Source: [3].


We'll explore internal workings of the Mobile Internet in the details... and will show how to hack Wireless Networks, how to secure it.

3/19/14

ASLR.

Address space layout randomization (ASLR) is a computer security technique involved in protection from buffer overflow attacks. In order to prevent an attacker from reliably jumping to a particular exploited function in memory (for example), ASLR involves randomly arranging the positions of key data areas of a program, including the base of the executable and the positions of the stack, heap, and libraries, in a process's address space.

Source: Wikipedia.

3/11/14

Nice Looking Programs and Garbage Collector.

Should programs be work of Art? Yes.

Should all of such look nice in 3D? No. Not all programs are meant to use this data structure, others are useful in other situations, but no less artistic in few 'cases'.

Should garbage collector be used to remove them from memory? Certainly NOT. It is to collect unused data, not to kill processes under development.

3/10/14

Security Guardians in Stitie Space.

Perhaps there can be Security Guardians in Stitie Space.

Like Samurai, wandering or not.

With different privileges, strengths and purposes....

They will check if Service Locator or any other Object in Stitie Space behaves correctly, if all protocols and if all checksums etc. are correct.

There can be also Ninjas (Hidden Security Processes) and Traps.

Stitie Space Concurrency & Security.

Concurrency:

One of approaches to Stitie Machine and Stitie Space Concurrency - is about sharing time and tasks between Stitie Machines.

To achieve this, we can use 'pure hack' with 'Shared State' between few Stitie Machines.


Security:

Groups based security for Stitie Machines. Per execution of methods, privileges will be granted for Strategies and States separately.

Stitie Space and Service Locator Design Pattern.

Perhaps there should be Service Locator with Cache for Stitie Space.

It would fetch Stitie Machines from Stitie Space, at given Coordinates.

Problems to consider are:

* Whether it's still the same Stitie Machine still? Perhaps someone put new one at coordinates since last cache update.
* (Optional) Global Lock for MATEN - it has to handle Caches as well.

Perhaps such Service Locators could register at Stitie Space, which would handle them first - whenever it's neccessary.

Perhaps Stitie Machines should be Space-Time-Stamped when in a Service Locator - with date, time and coords of last modification, perhaps with history of such.

Perhaps such Service Locators should be Hierarchical.


This should not be implemented prematurely (before MATEN tests).

It's much harder to fix two errors at once, than when they are isolated.

Expert System to Criticize Art.

Art critic should be like this: dismantle Art into pieces, criticize each then criticize the whole.

i should develop genetic algorithms with purpose of creating AI (Artificial Intelligence) - an expert system to criticize Art.

it will take into account both users critic and its own algorithms (there will be two score values - ai's rating and users' rating).

i'll start from analyzing data though, then add general genetic algorithm approach later.

i can serve that way, by criticizing Art, and by Automating that.

3/7/14

Cipher Artistic.

Literary Cipher.

Sometimes different meaning of a word is also part of key to a cipher - so called 'Literary Cipher'.

In IT systems using wrong key, or result of using different meaning can lead to different state of a program - seemingly different application with different content.


Cipher Artistic.

It is combination of a Cryptographic Cipher and a Literary Cipher and other forms of expression.

For speech is more than words.