Sum.
Amount of possibilities of selecting element from one of two disjoint Sets equals sum of Cardinalities of these Sets.
Cardinality of a Set is number of elements in that Set.
A ∪ B = A + B.
Product.
Amount of possibilities of selecting ordered pair equals to amount of possibilities of selecting first element multiplied by amount of possibilities of selecting second element.
A × B = A · B.
Words.
An nlength word over finite set (alphabet) S is a sequence of n Sset elements, with or without elements repetition.
for example:
we have S = { 0, 1 }, n = 3.
there are 8 binary words of length 3:
000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, 111.
Permutations.
Permutation of a finite set S is ordered sequence of all Sset elements, with each of elements occuring only once.
for example:
for S = { a, b, c }
we have 6 permutations: abc, acb, bac, bca, cab, cba.
amount of pemutations of nelement set S_{n} equals n! .
Combinations.
kcombination of nelement set S is a kelement subset of set S.
for example: if we have S = { a, b, c, d }, k = 2, then we have six 2combinations of S:
number of kcombinations of nelement set S equals:

=  ( 

)  = 

Probability.
def. Event Space S is a Set with Elementary Events.
def. Possible Outcome H, of experiment, H ⊂ S, 0 ≤ H ≤ S.
def. Elementary Event E is possible outcome of an experiment, E ⊂ S, 0 ≤ E ≤ 1.
def. Probability P(H, S) = H / S.
See also: [4], [7].
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