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2/17/15

Multi-Front Warfare & Axioms.

there are many fronts.

for example:
- tactics front,
- computing front,
- physics front.

how to face multi-front threat properly?

i am not expert but i think.

1. investigate axioms of each front.
2. create model that includes this all, show interactions & connections.
3. simplify & abstract.

axioms in this context are theoretical basics for thinking, assumptions & logic, laws governing the fronts.

once we have simplified abstract model of a multi-front, we usually label it with name, for example: physics-computing-tactics front.

we call laws governing this front axiomatics of physics-computing-tactics front.

quantum computing & tactics front is something different from physics-computing-tactics front.

we call product of abstract simplified model a 'tactics apparatus' for a given front (multifront is also a front, different from it's subfronts).

we can then dev tools & deploy if we must.

2/14/15

Secure Communication with Moving Units.

i think this can have uses in Military,

if we consider Shapes & Forms, we notice that we can control route of the information flow in space.

Command(s) can be Split for Transmission & Joined at Destination, more or less final.

let's notice that units forming a graph can move or delay transmission as neccessary, as 'command' can be executed at any node graph or unit as neccessary. this command is basicly computer program that can determine more actions such as radar sweeps, units moving, transmitting signal, spliting signal, re-encryption, etc.

this means that data can be sent to message carrier(s) any way / route we prefer, encrypted twice for example, then carriers can move to destination before transmission - if special security procedures dictate.

that way communication protocols are harder to break - including high abstraction level protocols, i think.

See also, if You wish: Communication via 3 nodes, P2P Robot Cloud Control System, Nanite War Computer Game.

Nanotechnology.

What is Nanotechnology?

it is design, creation & use of materials with at least one dimension measured in units of 1 nanometer.


Sciences Involved.

At least it is:
- Physics,
- Chemistry,
- Biology,

Other sciences can have uses, for example:
- Mathematics,
- Computer Sciences,
- Networking,
- more for sure,


Qualities.

When at least one dimension is within bounds of: <1 nm, 100 nm> it is between the distance typical for single atoms (1 nm = 10-9 m) & the size of distances found in a solid matter (100 nm = 10-7 m).

The diameter of an atom ranges from about 0.1 nm to about 0.5 nm.

Within such bounds material can have qualities that differ significiantly from those of the single atoms & of the typical crystals.

Thanks to nanotechnology, materials with qualities not found before can be created.

On the nanoscale the rules of the quantum physics are observed. Quantum Physics differs from Classical Physics, is of a probabilistic nature, act of observation affects observed objects as well.


Possibilities.

There are many, for example:
- Nanoelectromechanics (there can be nanoengines that can differ from microengines & larger for efficiency; there are also works on electric, magnetic & optic properties on nanoscale).
- probably more,

(to be corrected & elaborated when i can).

See also, if You wish: NEMS.

Source: [46], [49], perhaps more.

2/10/15

Simple Circuits.

(example of circuit diagram(s) to be provided here).

in electric circuits, there are active & passive elements:
- active element might be accumulator during power discharge,
- passive element might accumulator during power charging.

on diagrams, arrows' directions mean positive direction of current's flow.
- positive current is current flowing in direction positive flow, as noted with arrows,
- negative current is current flowing in opposite direction to positive flow, as noted with arrows.


positive voltage is shown using arrow's direction.

with positive voltage:
- negative pole is always where arrow-line begins,
- positive pole is always near arrow-head.


amperage & voltage notation is complete only with arrow-notation.

without complete notation, amperage & voltage can't be calculated or computed properly enough.


(to be corrected & elaborated if i can, as it's needed & neccessary).

2/8/15

Resistors.



Resistors,
(they can look differently as well).



Definition.

A resistor is an electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.

When choosing a resistor, four factors can be considered:
- value in Ohms (Ω),
- tolerance, for example: +/- 5%,
- power rate, maximum power which can be developed in a resistor without occuring damage by overheating,
- stability, ability to keep the same value with changes of temperature & with age.


Resistor Types.

- Fixed Resistors.

With fixed resistance & tolerance.

- Variable resistors.

Their resistance can be set, they also have tolerance - more or less precise.

- NTC Thermistors.

Negative Temperature Coefficient Resistors. Their resistance lowers with temperature's rise.

Usually their resistance is shown for temperature of 20oC.

There are thermistors that are self-heated by an electric current's flow, so resistance depends also on electric current.

There are also thermistors through which small enough current is flowing, so the heat from the electricity is neglient & only outside heating counts as far as resistance is considered.

- PTC Thermistors.

Positive Temperature Coefficient Resistors. Their resistance rises with temperature's rise.

Most PTC thermistors are of the 'switching' type, which means that their resistance rises suddenly at a certain critical temperature.

- Varistors.

Also called VDR - Voltage Dependent Resistors.

Their resistance lowers strongly as Voltage rises.


Source: [41], Wikipedia.

Plasma.



A Plasma Lamp.


Plasma (from Greek πλάσμα, 'anything formed') is one of the four fundamental states of matter, the others being solid, liquid & gas. A plasma has properties unlike those of the other states.

A plasma can be created by heating a gas or subjecting it to a strong electromagnetic field applied with a laser or microwave generator (blog author's note: WiFi communication uses microwaves). This decreases or increases the number of electrons, creating positive or negative charged particles called ions, and is accompanied by the dissociation of molecular bonds, if present.


def. Plasma is loosely described as an electrically neutral medium of unbound positive and negative particles (i.e. the overall charge of a plasma is roughly zero). It is important to note that although they are unbound, these particles are not ‘free’ in the sense of not experiencing forces. When the charges move, they generate electrical currents with magnetic fields, and as a result, they are affected by each other’s fields. This governs their collective behavior with many degrees of freedom.

A definition can have three criteria:
- The plasma approximation: Charged particles must be close enough together that each particle influences many nearby charged particles, rather than just interacting with the closest particle (these collective effects are a distinguishing feature of a plasma). The plasma approximation is valid when the number of charge carriers within the sphere of influence (called the Debye sphere whose radius is the Debye screening length) of a particular particle is higher than unity to provide collective behavior of the charged particles. The average number of particles in the Debye sphere is given by the plasma parameter, "Λ" (the Greek letter Lambda).
- Bulk interactions: The Debye screening length (defined above) is short compared to the physical size of the plasma. This criterion means that interactions in the bulk of the plasma are more important than those at its edges, where boundary effects may take place. When this criterion is satisfied, the plasma is quasineutral.
- Plasma frequency: The electron plasma frequency (measuring plasma oscillations of the electrons) is large compared to the electron-neutral collision frequency (measuring frequency of collisions between electrons and neutral particles). When this condition is valid, electrostatic interactions dominate over the processes of ordinary gas kinetics.


Source: Wikipedia.

2/6/15

Electric Current Density.

Electric current's density J depends on electric current's intensity I measured in (A) & on conductor wire's gauge S measured in mm2.

It is described by a physical formula:

J = I / S,

where:
- J is electric current's density, measured in A / mm2,
- I is electric current's intensity, measured in A,
- S is conductor wire's gauge, measured in mm2.

As electrons flow between two points with different electric potential (amount of electrons & positrons in an atom), physical medium resists their flow & gets heated.

Amount of heat depends on:
- conductor wire's gauge, measured in mm2 - in thinner conductor wires electrons flow faster & there's more heat,
- electric intensity - the more amperes the more heat,
- conductor wire's material - the more resistance the more heat.

it's all not so simple outside wired circuits, however.

Source: [29], [41], Wikipedia, the Internet.

2/2/15

The Internet Threat Model.

it's useful when planning for a distributed Internet application's security, it's configuration & implementation.

it's a summary of threats to be expected.

there are different threat models, this is most common threat model for the Internet, more or less, i read. at least from designers' of security protocols perspective.

this does not include wiretapping, social engineering & possibly other threats as power failures.

common threats:
- attacks on end systems threat, to disable or take over parts of distributed application.
- single point of failure threat - taking out a single system should not bring down whole distributed application, or too many of it's parts.
- poisoning threat - attackers might attempt to pretend to be legitimate users & attack communication protocols.
- modifying or reading communication between end systems threat.
- denial of service attack threat.
- security's too high cost threat.

source: [17].

Operating Systems Theory & Hacking.

under development, things to consider:

- hardware - physical machine, processor, memory, peripherals such as hard disk drive, graphics card, mouse, keyboard, anything else that can be connected to a computer,
- software - computer programs, both running as well as stored for running at other time,
- abstraction levels - ideas with lower level of abstraction are more concrete than ideas with high level of abstraction, which are more generalized & still on topic,
- software layers - contrary to many opinions, lower software layers form building blocks that are used in constructing software on higher layers. it's not the same as higher levels of abstraction on higher software layers. for example: computer game is not abstraction of operating system's kernel, game just uses kernel as a part. i can see that implementing computer system for one game only is concretization of machine, not abstracting use of computer system kernel.
- operating systems,
- kernels,
- assembler,
- C,
- system calls,
- perhaps more.

2/1/15

Electric Resistance.

Resistance.

The electric resistance of an electrical conductor is the opposition to the passage of an electric current through that conductor.

Depending on Voltage (a measure of how much force the electrons are under) & Resistance, the electric current (Amperage, amount of electrons moving in a circuit) can be deteremined as stated by Ohm's law.

Unit of Resistance is Ohm (Ω); [R] = Ω.

For example:

We can say that value of Resistance is 200 Ω.

R = 200 Ω.


Conductance.

The inverse quantity of Resistance is electric conductance, the ease with which an electric current passes.

Unit of conductance is siemens (S); [G] = S.

For example:

We can say that value of Conductance is 5 mS.

1/R = G = 5 mS = 1/200 Ω.


Resistivity.

Resistance of a conduct wire depends on:
- length,
- gauge,
- material type.

Resistivity ρ of a conduct wire is a resistance of a conduct wire with length of 1 m, gauge of 1 mm2, measured in a temperature of 20o C.

Unit of Resistivity ρ of a conductor is Ω mm2/m.


Conductivity.

Conductivity γ is inverse value of conduct wire's resistivity ρ.


Physical equations related.

R = 1 / G.

where:
- R: Resistance,
- G: Conductance.

R = (ρ · l) / S = l / (γ · S).

where:
- R: Resistance,
- ρ: Wire's resistivity,
- l: Wire's length,
- S: Wire's gauge,
- γ: Wire's conductivity.


Ohm's law.

Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points.

Introducing the constant of proportionality, the resistance, one arrives at the usual mathematical equation that describes this relationship:

I = U / R,

where:
- I: the current through the conductor in units of amperes,
- U: the potential difference measured across the conductor in units of volts,
- R: the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms.

More specifically, Ohm's law states that the R in this relation is constant, independent of the current.



U / I = R = const.



Resistance & Temperature.

Resistance of conducting materials depends on temperature.

Carbon, as well as most semiconductors conducts electric current better in hot state than in cold state. These materials are called conductors with resistance's negative temperature coefficient (NTC). Resistance lowers with increase in temperature.

Other semiconductors, conduct electric current better in cold state than in hot state. These materials are called conductors with resistance's positive temperature coefficient (PTC). Resistance increases with increase in temperature.

Magnitude of resistance change is described by temperature coefficient of resistance α.

Temperature coefficient of resistance α shows by how many ohms (Ω) resistance changes with temperature change of 1 (K).

ΔR = α · R1 · Δθ.
Δθ = θ2 - θ1.
R2 = R1 + ΔR.
R2 = R1(1 + α · Δθ).

where:
- ΔR: resistances difference,
- α: temperature coefficient,
- R1: resistance in temperature θ1,
- R2: resistance in temperature θ2,
- Δθ: temperatures difference,
- θ1: temperature at beginning,
- θ2: temperature at end.


Sources: Wikipedia on Resistance & Conductance, Wikipedia on Ohm's law, Wikpedia on Temperature Coefficient, [41].

See also, if You wish: Electricity.

Opposition Graph.

(At least three nodes - Opposition Triangle, perhaps preferably more... to prevent conflict(s) between two sides represented by nodes in graph).

(to be investigated, researched, elaborated).

Truth Color & Type.

(to be investigated, researched, elaborated).