i think but am no expert.
i think that Peer-to-Peer System with the System Coordinator can efficiently control 'Clouds' of Robots, either of nano-, pico-, or of other scale.
Election Algorithm might differ from classic Election Algorithm(-s), for example robotic units might have priorities in which they take over responsibility of the System Coordinator, or there might be a hybrid algorithm for the 'Election' / 'Succession'.
How these Robots are Coordinated?
idea is that robots have a certain degree of autonomy, and System Coordinator gives them tasks and provides them with more or less accurate coordinates of other Objects, for example coordinates of the robots in our 'swarm', or of other objects non-affiliated with our 'swarm'.
even imprecise coordinates might be useful, as System Coordinator does not need to have Total Control, letting robots attempt to find each other based on vague information, and receive reports such as last coordinates of certain robotic units.
such robots have Roles and Collaborate in smaller or larger groups or alone... some of them Communicating with System Coordinator over various distances, other performing different tasks.
Establishing communication can happen for example in a two-phase process using the directional energy rays such as Lasers or Xasers, Coherent X-Rays.
First, a 'search ray', aiming & searching fairly wide area is sent until sought object is located.
It can start as a thin line aimed at location, then gradually switch to a cone up to maximum angle, perhaps with 'searching movements', perhaps more.
Sought object answers with ray communication at the source, and second phase of communication is started, using much thinner rays, not spreading widely the details of communication over the Space.
Established communication should include maintained connection session, maintaining coordinates & destination points headed for and current. If neccessary, little of search movements & widening of a communication ray can occur. Retransmissions can occur as well.
Why coherent x-ray are option?
i've read & deducted that sooner or later, such coherent X-Rays will be available for communication purposes.
From the Internet perspective it's just another physical medium, so we require just a transceiver (transmitter-receiver).
They have precious properties of being able to pass through walls, while remaining coherent, thin & directional, perhaps more.
i can easily imagine that unique properties of X-Rays can prove them to be more succesful where other electromagnetic radiation wavelengths such as radio might fail.
They are as good as other electromagnetic wave lengths, it's just an example. They are just a part of multi-frequency communication links. Wave lengths determine frequencies, and vice versa - as not too far as i know.
See also: , , Digital X-Ray Signal Transmission., The Internet and Physical Communication Media, Hidden Communications Threat, Stitie Grid, Tactical Forms & Formations in 3D, Internet of Things, the Distributed Machine, perhaps more.